This is a posting of a bibliography on on-line character recognition (a.k.a. dynamic character recognition, a.k.a. pen computing). I am posting it as a service to those with interest in the field. It may also be of interest to anyone investigating any of the flood of patents in the areas of digitizer tablets, character recognition, tablet-PC GUIs, and multi-touch computing (such as the iPhone and Touch iPod). I have copies of most of the technical papers cited here, along with a hardware collection.
The bibliography is broken up into several web pages, for convenience in printing:
|1891 to 1970||1971 to 1975||1976 to 1980||1981 to 1983|
|1984 to 1985||1985 to 1986||1987 to 1988||1989 to 1990|
|1991 to 1993||1994 to 1995||1996 to 1998||1999 to 2000|
|2001 to 2003||2004 to 2005||2006 to 2007||2008 to 2010|
|2011 to 2013||2014 to 2015||not yet catalogued|
|Pictures and Videos|
When was Pen Computing invented?
Check this out: Notes on the "unknown" history of Pen Computing (from a talk given to the Boston Computer Society in 1992)
Note that there is a tendency for major vendors to re-name Pen Computing ("Tablet PCs", "Touch PCs", "Organic User Interfaces" are a few such names), which tends to obscure the historical record a bit.
Who invented Pen Computing?
You may have read something somewhere that indicated some organization like
|IBM||PenCept||GO Corporation||Rand Corporation|
... had invented pen computing / tablet computing. After skimming through some of the references above, you might start to think some of those claims - particularly those by large corporations - could be slightly exaggerated: for example, inventing an improvement on spelling correction [Viterbi67] is not the same as inventing the first graphical word-processing program.
Which is not to say that a particular system did not do some very interesting new things within the context of pen computing, such as [CarrR91] and [PenCept83].
Note: I find the very early references to technology interesting. For example,
You can find almost anything using one of the major search engines on the Internet these days. However, here are some links to other pages with talking about the history of pen computing. (Please note that links expire, so these may not all be up-to-date.)
Mirrors of this page can be found at:
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Last edited: 28-Dec-2013