History of Pen and Gesture Computing:
Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition, Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers

References from the approximate years 1878 to 1970.

This compilation and all annotations are copyright © Jean Renard Ward, 1993, 2004, 2011, 2013, 2016.
Permission is granted to use this information in publication, including confidential reports, provided that accompanying text clearly makes reference to the URL for this page, along with the statement:

Source:Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition,
Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers
Copyright Jean Renard Ward

Most of these are in my personal collection, either as physical items or electronic files.

I can be contacted at jrward@alum.mit.edu.
Copyright © Wed Jul 27 10:58:45 EDT 2016.

Mirrors of this page can be found at:

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  • [Peters63] Peters, R.D. "Signature Identification Device", United States Patent 3,113,461, December 10, 1963
  • [PostmanL45] Postman, Leo and Miller, G.A "Anchoring of Temporal Judgments", American Journal of Psychology, Vol 58, 1945, pp 43-53
  • [PoultonEC65a] Poulton, E.C. "Letter differentiation and rate of comprehension in reading", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 49, 1965, pp 358-362
  • [PrattF42a] Pratt, F. "Secret and Urgent", Blue Ribbon Books, Garden City, New York, 1942
  • [Priver67] Priver, Arthur S. and Boehm, Barry W. "Curve Fitting and Editing Via Interactive Graphics", RAND Corporation Research Memorandum P-3742, 1967. Present at the ACM Symposium on Interactive Systems for Experimental Applied Mathematics, Washington, August 1967
  • [RAND61] RAND Corporation "50 Years of Looking Forward", RAND Review, Fall 1998. Available at http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/rr.fall.98/50.html
  • [RankinBK65a] Rankin, B. Kirk III, Sillars, Walter A., and Hsu, Robert W. "On the Pictorial Structure of Chinese Characters", National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 254, January 4, 1965
  • [RankinBK67a] Rankin, B. Kirk III, Siegel, Stephanie, McClelland, Ann, and Tan, James L. "A Grammar for Component Combination in Chinese Characters", National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 286, 1967
  • [RankinK70a] Rankin, Kirk and Tan, James L. "Component Combination and Frame-Embedding in Chinese Character Grammars", National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 492, February 1970
  • [RenggerRE68a] Rengger, R.E. and Parks, J.R. "A Survey of Handprinting", National Physical Laboratory, Ministry of Technology, Autonomics Division, March 1968
  • [RhoadsKG70a] Rhoads, Kevin G. "SYSHAK: or, what a crock OS/360 is", SIPB (Student Information Processing Board), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1970
  • [RippyDE65a] Rippy, D.E. and Humphries, D.E. "MAGIC: A Machine for Automatic Graphics Interface to a Computer", Proc. FJCC 1965, pp. 819-830
  • [RobbinsMF70a] Robbins, M.F. and Beyer, J.D. "An Interactive Computer System Using Graphical Flowchart Input", CACM, Vol 13 No 2, February 1970, pp 115-118
  • [Roberts62] Roberts, Lawrence G. "Recent Development in Optical Character Recognition at M.I.T.", in "Optical Character Recognition", Spartan Books, 1962
  • [RobertsLG66a] Roberts, L.G. "The Lincoln Wand", Fall Joint Computer Conference 1966, Spartan Books, Washington D.C., pp 223-228
  • [RomeroA62a] Romero, Adolph "Electric Writing Board", United States Patent 3,019,425, January 30, 1962
  • [RomeroA64a] Romero, Adolph "Stylus Controlled Sign with Contact Grid of Parallel Plates", United States Patent 3,128,458, April 7, 1964
  • [RosenfeldA69a] Rosenfeld, Azriel "Picture Processing by Computer", Computing Surveys, Vol 1 No 3, September 1969, pp 147-174
  • [RosenthalAH47a] Rosenthal, Adolph H. "Two-way Television Communication Unit", United States Patent 2,420,198, May 6, 1947
  • [RovnerPD69a] Rover, P.D. and Henderson, D.A. Jr. "On the implementation of AMBIT/G: a Graphical Programming Language", Proc. IJCAI 1969: 9-20
  • [RuddiesGH66] Ruddies, Guenther H. "Deine Handschrift / Dein Ruin: Mach mehr aus Deiner Schrift", Verlag und Druckhaus Dr. Jenner, Munich (hardcopy book)
  • [SayreKM65a] Sayre, Kenneth M. "Recognition: A Study in the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence", Notre Dame, Indiana, University of Notre Dame Press, 1965
  • [ScriptureEW1900a] Scripture, Edward W. "Studies from the Yale Psychological Library", Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 1900
  • [SearsFW60a] Sears, Francis Weston and Zemansky, Mark W. "College Physics: Mechanics, Head and Sound. Third Edition", Addison-Wesley, 1960 (hardcopy book)
  • [SerrellR68a] Serrell, Robert and Kling, Frederick R. "Response expression apparatus for teaching machines", United States Patent 3,382,588, May 14, 1968
  • [ShannonCE49a] Shannon, C. E. "Communication Theor of Secrecy Systems", Classified Confidential Report "A Methematical Theory of Cryptography", declassified 1949
  • [ShannonCE51a] Shannon, C. E. "Prediction and entropy of printed English", Bell System Technical Journal, Vol 30, 1951, pp 50-64
  • [ShawAC70a] Shaw, Alan C. "Parsing of Graph-Representable Pictures", Journal of the A.C.M., Vol 17 No 3, July 1970, pp 453-481
  • [ShawJC58a] Shaw, J.C., Newell, A., Simon, H.A., and Ellis, T.O. "A Command Structure for Complex Information Processing", RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, Report No P-1277; PB-164 088
  • [ShepardDH53] Shepard, D. H. "Apparatus for Reading", United States Patent 2,663,758, December 22, 1953
  • [SheridanTB63a] Sheridan, T.B. and Ferrell, W.R. "Remote Manipulative Control with Transmission Delay", IEEE Trans. on Human Factors in Electronics, Sep. 1963, Vol 4 No 1, pp. 25-29 (partial copy)
  • [Simek67] Simek, J.G. and Tunis, C.J. "Hand-printing input device for computer systems", IEEE Spectrum, Vol 4, 1967, pp 72-81
  • [Sitar61] Sitar, E.J. "Machine recognition of cursive script: the use of context for error detection and correction", Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, Memorandum for file, 12 September 1961
  • [SmithLB70] Smith, Lyle B. "A Survey of Interactive Graphical Systems for Mathematics", Computer Surveys, Vol 2 No 4, December 1970, pp 261-297
  • [SmithlineET64a] Smithline "Limited Vocabulary Script Reader", IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, Vol 7 No 6, November 1964, pp 473-475
  • [SpinradRJ65a] Spinrad, R.J. "Machine recognition of hand-printing", Information and Control, Vol 8 No 2, 1965, pp 124-142
  • [StevensME61a] Stevens, M.E. "Automatic Character Recognition - A State-of-the-Art Report", U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBS Technical Note 112, May 1961
  • [StevensME70a] Stevens, Mary Elizabeth "Information Acquisition, Sensing, and Input: A Selective Literature Review", U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., NBS Monograph 113-1, March 1970
  • [StevensSS58a] Stevens, S.S. "Adaptation-level vs. the Relativity of Judgment", American Journal of Psychology, Vol LXXI No 4, December 1958
  • [StoneL54] Stone, Leo "On the Principal Obscene Word of the English Language -- An Inquiry, with Hypothesis, Regarding its Origin and Persistence", International Journal of Psycho-analysis, 1954, Vol 35, pp 30-56 (abstract only)
  • [StoneRC1889a] Stone, Ross C. "Telegraphic Apparatus", United States Patent 400,141, March 26, 1889
  • [StotzR63a] Stotz, R. "Man-Machine Console Facilities for Computer-Aided Design", Proceedings of AFIPS 1963 Spring Joint Computer Conference.
  • [SutherlandIE63a] Sutherland, Ivan E. "SKETCHPAD: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System", Ph. D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 1963
  • [SutherlandIE63b] Sutherland, I.E. "SKETCHPAD: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System", Spring Joint Computer Conference 1963, Spartan Books, Baltimore, Maryland, pp 326-ff.
  • [SutherlandIE64b] Sutherland, Ivan E. "Sketchpad Demo (video) 1 of 2", Excerpt from early 1960's TV report, shown at SIGGRAPH '83: Fetched 2010 http://youtube.com/watch?v=USyoT_Ha_bA
  • [SutherlandIE64c] Sutherland, Ivan E. "Sketchpad Demo (video) 2 of 2", Excerpt from early 1960's TV report, shown at SIGGRAPH '83: Fetched 2010 http://youtube.com/watch?v=BKM3CmRqK2o
  • [SutherlandIE65a] Sutherland, Ivan E. "The Ultimate Display", Proc. IFIP congress, 1965, pp. 506-608
  • [SutherlandIE66a] Sutherland, I.E. "Computer Inputs and Outputs", Scientific American, September 1966
  • [SutherlandIE68a] Sutherland, I.E. "A head-mounted three-dimensional display", Proc. FJCC Fall Joint Computer Conference 1968 pp. 767-764
  • [SutherlandWR66b] Sutherland, William Robert "On-line Graphical Specification of Computer Procedures", Ph.D. Thesis, M.I.T, January 1966. Also MIT Lincoln Laboratories Technical Report 405, May 1966
  • [TauschekG35a] Tauschek, G. "Reading Machine", United States Patent 2,026,329, December 31, 1935
  • [Taylor54] Taylor "Indicating Apparatus", United States Patent 2,672,605, March 16, 1954
  • [TeitelmanW63a] Teitelman, Warren "New Methods for Real-Time Recognition of Hand-Drawn Characters", Report 1015, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1963. Also MIT Master's Thesis, Dept. of Math., 1962
  • [TeitelmanW63b] Teitelman, Warren "ARGUS - a program that recognizes hand-drawn characters in real time", Artificial Intelligence Project, MIT Computation Center Memo AIM-53, 1963
  • [TeitelmanW64a] Teitelman, W. "Real-time recognition of hand-drawn characters", AFIPS Proceedings of Fall Joint Computer Conference, Vol 26, Spartan Books, Baltimore, Maryland, pp 559-575, October 1964
  • [Teixeira68] Teixeira, J.K. and Sallen, R.P. "The Sylvania data tablet: a new approach to graphic data input", Proceedings of Spring Joint Computer Conference, pp 315-323, 1968
  • [Telefunken68a] Bülow, Ralf "Auf den Spuren der deutschen Computermaus", Heise Online, April 28, 2009
  • [ThayerFW1878] Thayer, Frederick W. "Improvement in Masks", United States Patent 200,358, February 12, 1878
  • [ThereminLS28a] Theremin, Leo Ssergejewitsch "Method of and Apparatus for the Generation of Sounds", United States Patent 1,661,058, February 28, 1928
  • [ThomasRB67] Thomas, R.B. and Kassler, M. "Character recognition in context", Information Control, Vol 10, pp 43-64, 1967
  • [TinkerMA28a] Tinker, M.A. "The relative legibility of the letters, the digits, and of certain mathematical signs", Journal of Generative Psychology, Vol 1, 1928, pp 472-494 (partial copy)
  • [TinkerMA63a] Tinker, M.A. "Legibility of print", Iowa, Iowa State University Press, 1963
  • [Tomita67] Tomita, Shingo, Noguchi, Shoichi, Oizumi, Juro, and Iwamoto, Kangi "Recognition of Handwritten Katakana Characters", Electronics Communications of Japan, Vol 50, 1967, pp 174-183
  • [TownsendLG38a] Townsend, L.G. "Method of and Apparatus for the Indexing and Photo-Transcription of Records", United States Patent 2,121,061, June 21, 1938
  • [TurnerJA70a] Turner, J.A. and Ritchie, G.J. "Linear current division in resistive areas: Its application to computer graphics", Proc. SJCC, 1970, pp. 613-620
  • [UhrL61a] Uhr, L. and Vossler, C. "A pattern-recognition system that generates, evaluates, and adjusts its own operators", Proceedings of World Joint Computer Conference, Vol 19, 1961, pp 555-570
  • [VanRaalteJA68a] Van Raalte, John A. "Reflective liquid crystal television display", Proc. of IEEE, Vol 58 No 12, December 1969, pp. 2145-2149 (abstract only)
  • [VanderGon62] Van der Gon, J.J.D., et al "A handwriting simulator", Physics of Medicine and Biology, Vol 6 No 3, January 1962, pp 407-414
  • [VanderGonDenier65] Van der Gon Denier, J.J. and Thuring, J. Ph. "The guiding of human writing movements", Biological Cybernetics, Vol 2 No 4, Feb 1965 pp 145-158
  • [Vernon62] Vernon, H.C., and Walsh, Robert R. "Character Recognition Method and Apparatus", United States Patent 3,058,093, October 9, 1962
  • [Viterbi67] Viterbi, A.J. "Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimal decoding algorithm", IEEE Trans. Information Theory, Vol IT-13, 1967, pp 260-269
  • [VolkmannFC61a] Volkmann, Frances C. and Engen, Trygg "Three Types of Anchoring Effects in the Absolute Judgment of Hue", Jnl of Exp. Psychology, 1961, vol 61, No 1, pp. 7-17 (partial copy)
  • [VosslerCM64a] Vossler, C.M. and Branston, N.M. "The use of context for correcting garbled English text", Proceedings of 19th ACM National Conference, Philadelphia, 1964, pp D2.4-1 to D2.4-13 (abstract only)
  • [WGBH64a] WGBH (Public Television Station) "Computer Sketchpad (Video)", www.wgbh.org, fetched 2009
  • [WaalJDD32a] Wall, J.D.D. "Printscript", Bibliography by T.R. Davis
  • [WaltonHF1917a] Walton, Herman F. "Variable Electric Sign", United States Patent 1,231,821, July 3, 1917
  • [WeizenbaumJ67a] Weizenbaum, Joseph "Contextual Understanding by Computers", CACM vol 10 no 8, August 1967, pp. 474-480
  • [West60] West, G.P. "Method and Apparatus for Sensing Handwritten or Printed Characters", United States Patent 2,964,734, December 13, 1960
  • [WeverEG28a] Wever, Ernest Glen and Zener, Karl Edward "The Method of Absolute Judgment in Psychophysics", Psych Rev, Vol 35, 1928, pp 466-493
  • [WhitneyFL67a] Whitney, F.L. "Electroluminescent Lamp", United States Patent 3,317,722, May 2, 1967
  • [Wikipedia64] www.wikipedia.org "PLATO (computer system)", www.wikipedia.org, fetched 3/22/2010
  • [WilliamsTG69] Williams, Thomas G. "On-Line Parsing of Hand-Printed Mathematical Expressions: Final Report for Phase II", NASA Contractor Report CR-1455, Washington, D.C., December 1969, prepared by System Development Corporation
  • [Wilner66] Wilner "Dynamic alphanumeric Hand Printing Recognition System", IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, Vol 8, No 9, Feb 1966, pp 1205-1207
  • [WisemanNE69a] Wiseman, N.E. et al "PIXIE: A New Approach to Graphical Man-Machine Communication", Proc. 1969 CAD Conf, IEE, Southampton 1969, pp 463-ff
  • [WollrichAE70a] Wollrich, Arthur E. "Inductively Coupled Telautograph Apparatus with Stylus Angle Compensation", United States Patent 3,535,447, October 20, 1970
  • [WooPW62a] Woo, Paul W. "Ultrasonic Data converter", United States Patent 3,134,099, May 19, 1964
  • [WrightG52a] Wright, G.G.N. "The Writing of Arabic Numerals", Scottish Council for Research in Education Series No 33, pp 16-ff, University of London Press, London, 1952 (hardcopy book)
  • [YarbroughLD69a] Yarbrough, Lynn D. "Letter to the Editor: on using a graphic tablet", CACM, Vol 11 No 5, May 1968, pp. 294 and 377
  • [ZadehLA65a] Zadeh, L.A. "Fuzzy sets", Information and Control, Vol 8, 1965, pp 338-353
  • [ZernikeF34] Zernike, Fritz "Beugungstheorie des Schneideverfahrens und seiner Verbesserten Form, der Phasenkontrastmethode", Physica, Vol 1, 1934, pp. 689-704
  • [Zobrak67] Zobrak, M.J. and Sze, T.W. "A method of recognition of hand drawn line patterns", Proceedings of 1st Princeton Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, 1967, pp 240-244
  • [ZworykinVK47a] Zworykin, V.K. and Flory, L.E. "An Electronic Reading Aid for the Blind", Proc. American Philosophical Society, vol 91 no 2, april 5, 1947, pp. 139..142
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