This compilation and all annotations are copyright © Jean Renard Ward, 1993, 2004, 2011, 2013, 2016.
I can be contacted at email@example.com.
History of Pen and Gesture Computing:
Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition, Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers
References from the approximate years 2001 to 2003.
Permission is granted to use this information in publication, including confidential reports, provided that accompanying text clearly makes reference to the URL for this page, along with the statement:
Source: Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition, Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers Copyright Jean Renard Ward
Most of these are in my personal collection, either as physical items or electronic files.
Copyright © Fri May 19 17:51:27 EDT 2017.
Mirrors of this page can be found at:
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Screen readers: automatic labeling of graphics in Window-Eyes, Window Bridge, JAWS.
List of links to Newton pen-computing software, long list of Newton applications and companies.
Using crossing of two marks (or self-crossing) to point more accurately on a touchscreen. Better results with a stylus, though harder to double-tap (or tap) with a stylus.
Product literature on 'Noise Robust', handwriting and speech recognition products. Mentions special support for left-handed handwriting input. Says special writing areas and gestures are not required, but also mentions support for macro gestures. Appears to be the former ParaGraph recognition technology. Speech recognition in TI/Texas Instruments C55x DSP chips. Multilingual handwriting recognition, Roman/Chinese/special symbols. Presents user with a recognition result at the end of every character: similar technique used in Wang Freestyle laptop with simulated devices in 1987 (see Martin/Ward/et-al patent: though not mentioned there).
Touchscreens advantageous over physical keys and switches because control surface is overlaid on display. Mentions targeting accuracy limits of fingers, especially small targets. Suggests zooming, and second-stage fine adjustment of location by cursor keys (may be virtual) or cross-hairs, or selecting on finger lift: selection on finger lift enhanced by displaying a "precision handle" to let user adjust fine position before lifting.
Mentions Sidekick phone dialer for DOS by Borland Internationa, 1984. On-screen highlighting of phone numbers for dialing.
Hand gestures picked up by sound/acoustic sensor on wrist via bone conduction: finger-tapping, rubbing, flicking, detected by sound.
Press release (in German) on WACOM Intuos@ and PC/Cintiq Interactive Pen Displays/tablets/touchscreens for graphics applications. Notes 15 year history (as of 2003) of Wacom with pen-computing, first pen-computing concept device (Lombard) and first Pen OS (PenPoint) developed using Wacom hardware.
Rolling gesture: roll fingertip or stylus on touchscreen tablet, such as to scroll for fine positioning. Finger tip *not* placed over cursor. May also scroll whole image on screen. Not clear how rolling is detecting: small vector? pressure? (Resistive-film digitizer). Compare with cursor-offset input, and with simulated mousepad on touchscreen Wang Freestyle.
Rotate/flip orientation of user interface, and of camera image, when a digital camera is turned landscape/portrait mode.
Applications software development kit for Anoto "smart paper" patterned optical digitizer technology. File contains additional (and more recent) materials. Refers to Magic box: checkbox or mark box, when PC service detects pattern defined for that area, starts transmission over Internet to URL endpoint for the Application Service Handler registered with Anoto. (Pattern space must be registered with Anoto for the service.) Discussion of world-sized Anoto pattern area, pattern page templates: elements include drawing areas, user areas (subdivisions of drawing areas), pidgets (magic box or text-entry field).
Applications icons (printed on Anoto pattern paper) for software development for Anoto "smart paper" patterned optical digitizer technology. "pidgets" are printed-on-paper widgets/icons (magic boxes). Standardized icons/symbols for book title, store book, send e-mail, etc. A6/A7/A5/A4 paper layouts.
Optical digitizer "smart paper" design guidelines for paper forms: patterned optical digitizer technology. Anoto camera hardware 7mm from pen tip. Vibration/haptic feedback on Magic boxes, pidgets, etc. Vibration if Anoto pattern not recognized, but does not detect black/white printed text (only colored plain paper: half-screen?). WYDIWYG What you draw is what you get (compare WYSIWYG). Traceability code in paper (rightmost 4mm) identifies registration of pattern with Anoto. Example forms for messages, graphical SMS message, notepads, task, calendar.
Optical digitizer using "smart paper" patterned optical digitizer technology, included working pens, assortment of paper, applications software for Windows. Optical stylus (inking pen) determines position, which paper form, which instance of paper form from pattern. Able to determine height, angle, rotation of stylus/pen.
Documentation of electronic ink and handwriting recognition in Apple Carbon/Cocoa, Objective-C with graphics tablet and a stylus. Automatic (pen-enabled) handwriting recognition in Mac OS X version 10.2. Ink services version 10.3: gestures for editing text. Gestures similar to PenPoint: cut (pigtail), clear (rubout), escape, join, etc. Untargeted (use of) gestures applies to current selection or text insert point, targeted (use of) gestures uses hot spot location: join ("v") has two hot spots. Compare with PenWindows and Tablet PC (contemporaneous). Handwriting/gestures anywhere on screen, except in specific mouse-input areas (title bar, etc.). Toggle button between ink/handwriting recognition modes (compare: PenCAD). Discusses mouse-event coalescing, disabled for electronic ink (no buffering).
API documentation for Ink Services: electronic ink, (text) gestures, and handwriting recognition on Apple Mac OS X. Ink Phrases: collection of strokes -- compare with PenPoint Scribbles.
Review of some history of pen-computing: does not mention Pencept or CIC/Handwriter of mid-1980s. T. L. Dimon Stylator, RAND tablet Grafacon. Cites Alan Kay dynabook (however it did *not* include handwriting input).
Computer simulation of historical (electronic) musical instrument with waveforms printed concentrically around rotating optical disk. Two-handed user interface uses two styli (mouse and stylus) on same Wacom tablet: multi-touch.
Publication list for James Arvo, mostly on photorealistic rendering of graphical images.
Installation and operation guide for 6DOF/3D position tracking digitizer. First revision of documentation 1992. One example is tracing (with one sensor) 3D position and orientation of electronic game pistol. Generated magnetic fields can affect CRT monitors. Nearby metals affect magnetic fields, cause errors, transmitter must be mounted using non-magnetic materials.
paper PDA -- user writes on paper (with pre-printed marks/forms), scans into computer, which recognizes and processes/stores information, prints out new pages. Semi-structured templates or guides for user to make gestures/marks on the paper: e.g. orientation dots, angled figure-8 pattern of guidelines for arrows/check-marks/cross-out/asterisk.
Guide to writing expert reports for internal purposes, accidents, medical, etc.
Paper-based electronic book. Physical book combined with proximity (capacitive) sensors for reader touching pages, RFID tags for identifying pages. Sounds play depending on page and where user moving hands near book. Example is supporting sound effects for story. Cites to Paradiso 1995 electronic music with proximity/capacitive sensing.
Refers to videos of "Gestures as Data" (handwriting recognition on tablet, sketch recognition), Genesys, Baecker, 1968, and "Gestures as commands", Kurtenbach/Buxton, 1987.
Study of two-handed manipulation, degree of parallelism using two cursors (styli) in two hands to track/dock two objects. Two pens (styli) on a single Wacom Intuos digitizing tablet. multi-touch.
Direct manipulation of dragable widgets to adjust properties of streaming data e.g. amplitude, size, etc. User can re-configure widgets.
Mouse emulation on tablet touchscreen: one finger touch is left button, two finger touch is right button, detects double finger by getting strong signal. Other method is double-tap for right button. Cites to Freestyle patent for mouse emulation.
Remote control touchpad for a computer, handwriting recognition performed on host computer. Switch between pen and mouse (writing and pointing) modes by pressing barrel side button on stylus. Compare with Microsoft display/tablet? On-screen icons to select stylus as right/left mouse button input: compare with Freestyle "The Guide"? Cites to Pen Windows: barrel button means erase ink rather than write ink. Compare with Freestyle "erase" button on stylus? See Rockstar Samsung.
History of bar codes back to Wallace Flint 1932, Bernard Silver 1948.
Project management and organization system.
Whitepaper on light transmission through touch panels: 40%, versus 95% for window glass. Describes light transmission for resistive, capacitive, SAW Surface acoustic wave, and infrared touch panel digitizers.
Using pen gestures -- not recognized shapes, but motion to control joints of simulated avatar -- for a virtual reality system. Tailored to hand-held displays, with voice input and one-handed input to control avatar. Users required practice to be able to do pen gestures and interact at the same time.
Add-on camera for Itsy small palm-held/hand-held computer. Video recording at 30 frames/second with VGA. Interpolation/image-recovery to recover color data by averaging pixels which each have a single R/G/B value.
Commands/gestures by rotating entire hand-held device (dynamic or sequences of positions/orientations), using inertial (or accelerometer) sensors. Slide-to-unlock?
Drag-and-drop is direct manipulation, eliminates interaction with (hidden) clipboard for cut-and-past or copy-and-paste. Xerox Liveboard, SmartTech.com Smartboard whiteboard systems. Multi-display whiteboard systems such as DynaWall. Drag-and-pop rubber bands extend towards object from possible targets, only need to drop on nearest rubber band instead of far distance.
user-interface on a large whiteboard touchscreen: when user picks a menu item or icon for an action, automatically move possible targets temporarily towards the stylus/pen so that they user can reach them more easily. Also: electronic video file of demonstration.
On small PDA displays, when zooming in (e.g. on a map), show circular range borders at edges for locations of interest (e.g. restaurants) that are off-screen, to maintain context. Alternative is showing highlighted/labeled arrows at edges pointing to off-screen locations. Circular borders better at giving information of distance. Cites to zoomable interfaces, transparent windows/interface tools, fisheye views.
Transparent graphical user interface tools on touchscreen of smartphone. Press-and-hold of one to two seconds. Analog (resistive sheet?) touchscreen, but can determine pointer size (stylus, finger) from contact area / touch point distribution, or by speed of pressure change. One feature is showing translucent/transparent navigation arrows on small screen all the time, can be enabled when needed (reduces screen real estate needed). Transparent/see-through virtual keyboard?
Transparent graphical user interface tools on touchscreen of smartphone. Press-and-hold of one to two seconds. Analog (resistive sheet?) touchscreen, but can determine pointer size (stylus, finger) from contact area / touch point distribution, or by speed of pressure change. One feature is showing translucent/transparent navigation arrows on small screen all the time, can be enabled when needed (reduces screen real estate needed).
Show overlapping windows with tabs: user has better overview of windows in context. Compare with PenPoint? Also rotated windows, peeled-back windows to see what is underneath. If Window rotated less than threshold 10 degrees, snaps to orthogonal unrotated perspective.
Screen reader, speaks ALT tags/labels on graphics if present.
Scroll faster speed/velocity depending on what is in view (larger objects faster).
Zoom (figuratively) into region or information of interest in a small display: e.g. tap on a date in a calendar month view, get the day information with the rest of the calendar month pushed out to the sides. Mentions work on DataLens and fish-eye techniques back to 1982.
Siemens e-license: challenge/response with asymmetric keys (compare with HTTPS/PKI) for DRM rights managements for file access, partial file access, rendering. Note: Worked with Glenn Benson at Siemens.
Magic Table / Magic Board: Tabletop touch surface, images projected from above. Tracks colored objects (balls) as tokens/cursors for direct manipulation gestures of virtual objects. Image scanning of full tabletop/whiteboard by mosaicing of multiple sub-images from camera.
User authentication via user's typing rhythms/dynamics on letter/key pairs. Earliest citation is Gaines 1980.
User authentication via user's typing rhythms/dynamics. Intended as secondary proof of identity when intrusion detection fires. Should have cited to Multics 1976? See related patent.
Use of Wacom or Smart Technologies whiteboard in groupware application with network of pen-based computers. Original works cites to 1993.
Emulate two button mouse with single stylus/pen: toggle icon to change state of switch tip from left mouse button emulation to right mouse button operation. Includes displaying on-screen keyboard.
On-screen keyboard in handwriting recognition tablet devices, devices connect to a server wirelessly (thin client?). On-screen keyboard protected by occlusion window from being overwritten by server display of data. Refers to "shadowing" of keyboard on display: transparent virtual keyboard?
Gesture as hand gesture, not as handwriting gesture for pen-computing. Mentions Theremin as gesture-input device (non-computer): File also contains 2009 Draft.
Handwriting stylus/pen measuring deflection of ink cartridge tip laterally to product direction vector. Mentions optical tracking and accelerometers (compare: Anoto, Crane). Upper-case handwritten characters recognized by sequence of direction vectors (compare: chain codes).
Show marks in scrollbar for where search terms are found in a document. Compare with information/tags in sliders, esp. Russian patent.
Display shades of color in frame/slider bar of window to show how much document has been changed at that point, readability score of text, tags of different colors for different search terms, etc. Cites to Alphaslider, SeeSoft, Data Visualization Sliders, Scrollsearcher. Compare with information/tags in sliders, esp. Russian patent.
Refers to new generation (2002) of Tablet PCs using ink, not handwriting recognition: compare to Slate note on "deferred recognition" and "ink as a data type" from 1992.
Historical summary of pen computing: cites 1914 and 1938 patents, may have been taken from Jean Renard Ward on-line information on "History of Pen Computing": mentions Pen Services 2.0 for Windows95, successor to Windows for Pen Computing.
Part of larger article by Hecht on Dataglyph patterns hidden in printed material to encode information. Include data collection or links to further information in the information encoded in the pattern. Compare with Anoto and LiveScribe pen pattern.
File includes bio sketch of Daniel G. Bobrow.
six-button menu input system for limited input, by giving most recently used options first: compare to pop-up menus.
Compare with greying out disabled menu items, toolbar items: show infrequently used items in transparent color, so not to obscure view of user interface objects underneath.
Force-feedback haptic mouse for windows-based GUI, feedback defined by profiles for display resolution (which may change dynamically), different feedback in different application windows,
Test application using printed Xerox glyphchess pattern on the bottom of chess pieces: pieces' position can be read with chess pieces on top of a flatbed scanner.
Targeting action on small touch screens, lack of tactile feedback on simulated buttons, use auditory sound feedback in the user interface instead to ensure accuracy. Touchscreen target accuracy worse when user is standing. Discusses select-on-left versus activate-on-touch problems. Small targets especially a problem on mobile devices with small screens, while user is standing or walking, etc. Stylus occlusion problem.
Essay that IT technology / human interface components are are already developed (like the wheel), but the systems of the future will apply them in substantially more sophisticated way.
Historical essay of pen-computing development from about 1990 onward: Slate Corporation, GO Corporation, Microsoft Pen-Windows. Pen-centric UI (term coined by Slate), deferred translation of recognition rather than handwriting recognition in real time. Slate pen-computing applications: At-Hand, PenPower, Day-Timer Pen Scheduler, LooseLeaf Notetaker, PenApps, PenBasic. Mentions Pensoft, Aha!, digital ink, Windows Journal program. Cites Wang Freestyle (synchronized voice and ink recording, no handwriting recognition or gestures) as "totally major", even without handwriting recognition or gestures.
States that Tablet PC, "tablet" implies a pen, therefore relating to pen computers / pen computing. Mentions problems of over-filtering / over-smoothing of electronic ink data in pen drivers.
Press article on replacement of Graffiti with Jot recognition from CIC/Handwriter. Mentions that Grafitti handwriting recognition had to be in special area of screen, Jot/Graffiti2 can be anywhere on screen. Cites Palm/Xerox patent lawsuit.
One of several presentations on ClassPad stylus/pen-computer mathematical PDA in math education. Comparision with other mathematics modeling software.
Shared note-taking electronic message board / shared whiteboard for families, using electronic ink and post-it notes. Cites to InterLiving Project of EU Disappearing Computer Initiative. Prototype uses Wacom or Sony VAIO SlimTop pen tablet. Cites note taking to Lotus telenotes.
Using touch sensors (touch pads: see touchscreen; carbon coated membrane type switches) to control a flashlight/light by adding a MMI (man-machine interface: user interface). Touch pads / membrane switches can be sealed, unlike mechanical switches, do not expose user to high current/voltage in mechanical switch. Switches sensed by microchip that adds intelligent functions to otherwise dumb device: emergency flashing, time schedule, etc. See Bruwer 2010 on proximity sensing.
GPS touchscreen device, automatically rotates screen map and information windows for orientation. Indicia on buttons are angled to be usable in either orientation landscape/portrait.
History of Ascension Technology founded by ex-employees of Polhemus, 3D digital tracking systems. Mentions patent disputes between Polhemus and Ascension.
History of GRiD/GRiDPad, Palm Computing / Palm Pilot, Handspring, Zoomer, US Robotics, Psion, Newton, Microsoft WinPad hand-held palmtop portable touch computers / PDAs. Interviews with Jeff Hawkings, Donna Dubinsky, Ed Colligan. Acquisition of GEOS from GeoWorks. Touchdown pen computer with ComPaq. Microsoft Pocket PC, but not Tablet PC. Windows CE short battery life / power management. Pen computing "was a dog" comment.
See also http://www.billbuxton.com. Marking/pie menus?
European standards report on DRM / Digital Rights Management. Defines DRM as relating to entire life-cycle of the content. Defines DRM technology specifically in terms of encryption. MPA defines DRM in terms of container, which only a trusted /payer/viewer can unlock, using rights securely associated with the content. Cites to XrML rights language from Xerox PARC (see Stefyk), IEEE LTSC Digital Rights Expression Language (DREL), Rights Data Dictionary, ODRL Open Digital Rights Language, etc. Microsoft Digital Assets Server, etc.
Magazines to public on Tablet PC, Brief history of pen computing to 1957 patent, citing interview with tablet visionary Alan Kay (Dynabook).
Microsoft announcement of Windows CE at lower price, available in modular/componentized form for OEMS. Compete with entrenched embedded OS vendors Palm and Linux. Windows CE previously used in Microsoft Pocket PC device.
capacitive touch panel (e.g. touch screen pad) with protection against moisture and contamination problems. Uses response to square-wave pulse. Square electrode 1 with electrode 2 around perimeter. Mentions grounding ring near touch pad (capacitive button) in some designs.
"Tactile" character recognition, user moves finger or stylus across raised guides that are similar to 7-segment or 17-segment character displays.
Stephen Capps is listed in over 50 patents for pen-computing user-interface features, mostly from the Apple Newton.
Patents cite little or no prior art before 1990: citations to van Rammsdonck, Pencept, and CIC may have been appropriate.
Infrared digitizing pen, infrared transmitter in pen, receiver unit plugs into USB port, resolution 0.25 mm at 200 points/second, handles up to A4 size paper. Handwriting recognition from various packages: Lexicus, PenPower, Paragraph. For use with Casio Pocket PC and Cassiopaia Fiva Subnotebook. Compare with Anoto?
Casio Wristwatch with touchscreen input.
Casio VDB-100 Wristwatch with touchscreen input circa 1991: shows touch screen of menus, no character recognition. File contains additional materials.
User hardware reference on ClassPad stylus/pen-computer mathematical PDA. Extensive plotting, equation editing, including 2D/3D graphs and surfaces. Multiple soft keyboards, not handwriting or gesture recognition. Educational market. "2D keyboard" for entering/editing mathematical expressions: Mathematical expression editor -- templates for fractions, square roots, integrals etc. brings up 2D graphical template, user enters values/variables and sub-expressions.
User guide to software of ClassPad stylus/pen-computer mathematical PDA. Extensive plotting, equation editing including 2D/3D graphs and surfaces, standard regression, numeric (and symbolic?) equation solutions. Four-point touchscreen alignment, targets are offset. Multiple soft keyboards, not handwriting or gesture recognition. Educational market.
User guide to ClassPad stylus/pen-computer mathematical PDA.
Business overview of technologies collectively described as "digital paper" -- electronic paper, electronic ink. SmartPaper/Gyricon paper-like display using microscopic spheres in transparent membrane at Xerox PARC in 1975; Electronic ink paper-like display similar by E-Ink, DataGlyphs and DigiPaper printed pattern similar to Anoto.
Description of Agreement-based / Account-based / Acceptance-based PKI model for CertSigner, a web-forms signing and automatic credentialing product incorporating cryptographic authentication and other authentication.
Signature verification based on pressure/force profiles, comparison with average of multiple samples from same user as enrollment data.
dataglyph encoding of URL and other addresses: glyph pattern involved contrast of pixels: grey on white background, grey on black background: pattern is visible in examples. Compare with Anoto?
Part of GRIGRI project: electronic flight progress strips for air traffic control, using touchscreens, limited gesture recognition.
Resistive touchscreen noise reduced by having second antenna/sensor for picking up ambient/environmental noise (voltage) from LCD/CRT display, subtract from actual signal.
Alternative to WML and mobile mark-up languages for the days of low bandwidth, small screen PDAs for web browsing: send structural part of web page (layout) to PDA with only first part of the (larger) text sections. User clicks / acts on a piece of text, and PDA sends request for an update to that portion of the HTML. Based on a presumption that the reduced text (by itself) will help by sending less data, and only what the user requests, rather than the whole page. (Also that the reduced text will be intelligible.).
UI using pressure-sensitive multitouch touchpad digitizer (MTC Express). Details of interpolation and image processing of Taxels (touch pixels): bilinear, bicubic, Gaussian, nearest-neighbor interpolation to get higher resolution than sensors. Other hardware include Lee multi-touch, Fingerworks TouchStream, optical vision tracking, SmartSkin. Multi-touch interactive art installations.
Two-handed gestures using video tracking. In some gestures one hand supports the other: Close-hand gesture of left hand brings up structural radial menu (pop-up: compare with marking menu) to be selected by a left hand finger. Two-handed rotate gesture, center of circle or point of rotation with left hand. Cites to Krueger/VideoDesk. Compare with Wellner. multi-touch.
Flexible white electronic paper display, electrophoretic (electronic ink) display, E-Ink Corporation.
Rotating menus, some elements off screen so no limit to number of elements or organization as elements added. Cites to pie menus.
pop-up a menu based on a context gesture (any kind of gesture) rather than tapping or clicking on a handle. Cites to Buxton and Agulnick.
Sony Ericsson P800: smartphone/PDA with camera and touch-screen interface.
Ericsson R380s flip phone with keys on outside, touchscreen on inside with Symbion EPOC OS. Physical keys press directly on touchscreen.
Tap on small element in a gui (web page), zooms in a magnified view so user can use it. Compare with Pad++, semantic zooming, Buxton lens.
Various quotes from about 2002/2003 about the history/origin of pen computing, by Bill Gates and others. Imply that original Dynabook was a tablet PC pen computer: note that original sources do not back this up much.
virtual keyboard: "A graphical user interface in the form of a transparent keyboard may be positioned over an existing computer display. The user may input textual data through the keyboard by selecting keys in the transparent keyboard display. The text entry may then appear on the computer display in non-transparent or conventional format.".
Pen2Net CompuPen: ballpoint pen that captures anything written on paper, without specially patterned paper (see Anoto).
Toshiba Dynapad T100X Tablet computer / pen computer (1992), ran Microsoft Windows for Pen Computing, or PenPoint / GO, retail price $3500.
Small, trainable handwriting recognition using chain codes and angles.
Describes early Applicon Ledeen/Teitelman character recognizer of 1973: single-stroke Z as a gesture using the bounds to for a Zoom area -- compare with Recognition Macro gestures of Pencept?
User carries wireless authentication token, so that does not need to lock screen, or to type in password when returning to computer. Files on disk are encrypted, files in cache are not. While user away, file cache encrypted, approximately 5..6 seconds. Token bound to particular (laptop) computer, to be less useless if stolen.
Tangible objects -- small blocks with recognition marks -- used for a tangible user interface. Musical input by placing blocks on an optical touch surface.
virtual musical instrument (like plucked strings) using Wacom tablet, gestures on pressure-sensitive multi-touch surface (Tactex), and keypad (for chords).
virtual musical instrument using Pointing Fingers (multi-touch trackers), but any multi-touch input device on the screen may be used (SmartSkin, etc.).
Commentary on Rubine as early Unistroke alphabet character recognizer, chain codes, Graffiti implementation in C# programming language.
Sony add-in camera for CLIE/Palm PDAs, plugs into Sony memory-stick slot. Mentions stereo sound on recorded videos.
Model and empirical data for human and monkey fingertip, primarily to model mechanics of tactile sensing (texture detection, neuron mechanoreceptors), include modeling of fingertip deformations under load (compare with fat-finger problem).
demonstration of interactive sketch understanding, with automatic automation of drawing (wheels on sketch of automobile turn, etc.). Compare with DavisRC07, which describes a Wizard of Oz prototype for sketch understanding.
six degree-of-freedom DOF digitizer for sketching 3D surfaces, using stereoscopic display and 3D digitizer. Permits erasing/deleting of portions of surfaces/lines while sketching (3D erase gesture?) by moving backwards along curve just drawn, integration of editing and creation phases. Earlier references back to 1999. 2D input allows for extruded curves. Accuracy of curve affected by velocity/speed of drawing/sketching motion (slower motion, more control points for the curve to be fitted.).
simplified/extended HTML mark-up language for small-screen portable devices. Extensions add navigational aids to touchscreen/small-display interface.
Notes that TabletPC can support multiple digitizers at the same time: reference to integrated resistive touchscreen and electromagnetic digitizer tablet from FinePoint, versus Wacom?
Hardware feature comparisons for Microsoft Tablet PC vendors: almost all use Wacom electromagnetic touchscreen/digitizer, some use FinePoint combined resistive touchscreen.
FingerMouse: optical finger tracker (not actually worn) using two closely-spaced stereo cameras, and presumes that user is holding a pointer finger at approximately the same close distance. Called wearable because it is very low power consumption.
Electronic ink/Multimedia annotations on paper documents, user can mark area for annotation: multiple layers of annotation for whole document, particular part, finer details. Implemented with Paper++.
General reference on SQL database system and language as implemented by Microsoft.
User guide for Dell version of Microsoft Pocket PC with touchscreen and handwriting recognition (tap gesture to recognize electronic ink: compare with deferred recognition and Slate). Soft keyboard / virtual keyboard.
Automatic scrolling of handwriting ink in a handwriting area during handwriting recognition: compare with Freestyle?
TFT LCD display with integrated photosensor optical sensors for touch input: shows XY location of shadow (ambient light) cast by stylus or finger touch. multi-touch.
Communications device (e.g. smart phone) with Java: keyboard and mouse.
Shows action of WM_RBUTTONUP as posting WM_QUIT to exit current window (as contrasted to other right-click behaviors).
Poster/paper to accompany demonstration of applications using GroupLab DiamondTouch Toolkit SDK/APIs. Example SquiggleDraw, using multi-touch inputs from multiple users in drawing. States that DiamonTouch did multiple touches per user. Tracks/identified individual users on each input.
Multi-touch digitizer on a table (compare with Entertaible), using separate capacitive coupling for each human user, so that you can tell which user/stylus corresponds to which input. Mentions Human-Guided Simple Search as a prototype groupware application (whiteboard). Also: electronic video file of 2001 demonstration.
multi-user, multi-touch touchpad/touchscreen, separate (AC) electrostatic/capacitive signals through body of each user, detection is capacitive junctures of X/Y matrix grid. For multiple touches by single user, X/Y array of separate antennas.
Multi-touch digitizer on a table (compare with Entertaible), using separate capacitive coupling for each human user, so that you can tell which user/stylus corresponds to which input. Mentions Human-Guided Simple Search as a prototype groupware application (whiteboard).
Simultaneous use of LED as optical transmitter and as optical receiver/sensor: opto-isolator? LED as photoresistor.
Circular bar code, no preferred direction, uses arc segment patterns in two concentric "data rings" inside border. Compare with illustrations in Sedaker.
2002. Telephone 1-800-687-6543 x 27 (Chris Cole)
See also http://www.cadigital.com/1000.htm
parent company, Surplus Technology Group, purchased assets of Grid System Inc. After running out of Grid units, went with Fujitsu Personal Systems Inc.
product: Ricoh G1200 Windows 95 pen-computer with CD tray.
product: IBM 730 T Windows 95 pen-computer.
product: Kalidor K2000 Windows 3.1 (!) pen-computer, waterproof.
product: Fujitsu Stylistic LT Windows 98 pen-computer.
product: Fujitsu Stylistic 500 Windows 3.1/95 pen-computer.
product: Fujitsu Stylistic 1000 Windows 3.1/95 pen-computer.
product: Fujitsu Stylistic 2300 Windows 95/98/NT pen-computer.
product: Fujitsu Point 1600 Windows 95/98/NT pen-computer.
product: Fujitsu Stylistic 1200 Windows 95/98/NT pen-computer.
product: Fujitsu Point 510 Windows 95/98/NT pen-computer.
product: Fujitsu PenCentra CD WindowsCE pen-computer.
Public demonstration of Tablet PC 2004: context-sensitive syntax rules for recognition of URLs and other formatted text in input fields, electronic ink in Web Browser input through web controls, In-place TIP (Tablet PC Input Panel) with writing pad mode, write-anywhere: see also Microsoft file.
Dolphone screen reader, has graphics labels / graphic labeling.
Capacitive touchpad: respond to a touch with a minimum area (pressure) instead of a tap: easier for kiosk users.
Review of touch, direct manipulation interfaces, tangible interfaces: cites to Wellner, metaDESK/phicons,
biometric user authentication based on keystroke/typing analysis. Best technique not determined.
biometric user authentication based on keystroke/typing analysis. Keystroke data and profiles are application-specific, explained by some applications being heavily text-oriented (Messenger, Microsoft Word). Most analysis done with timing digraphs / common two-key sequenced (e.g. T-H). Earliest citation is 1985: no citation to Multics.
Gestures for shaping drawings (stretch, twist, size, etc.).
Electrostatic/capacitive touchscreen digitizer, NFI.
Freestyle-like electronic whiteboard for university teaching: records/streams audio, whiteboard image, video, and any slides etc. for university lectures.
Capacitive touchpad sensor with proximity sensing: when user's hand/finger gets close in distance to an icon or widget object, activate or highlight the object. Compare with context-sensitive cursors and highlighting of objects to show drop locations using proximity in PenPoint?
Software to map touch regions of the screen to tactile signals in an actuator in a pointing device (mouse, touch tablet, etc.) based on a profile definition.
On-screen simulated switch/key to enable an operation: slide-to-unlock?
Fujitsu Lifebook P1000: Windows XP Home edition rather than Tablet PC edition: integrated touchscreen, not proximity tablet. Apparently touchscreen used as best alternative to mouse (versus touchpad) to get very small form factor.
Overview of Microsoft Windows CE operating system: subset of Win32 API, cross-compilers for different processors (e.g. PowerPC, Intel 486, ARM, MIPS, etc. OEM Adaptation Layer (OAL) takes place of BIOS between kernel and hardware. Description of interrupt processing and device driver model. preemptive multi-tasking, execute in place from ROM. Non-windows and minimalist windows support. JVM Java virtual machine.
Windows CE operating system circa 2003: 32-bit, preemptive multi-tasking, multi-threading. Subset of Windows API. Windows Desktop GUI, web browser. IDE is Platform Builder 3.0 (formerly Embedded Toolkit for Visual C++ / ETK). Touchscreen driver to replace mouse. Portable to different processor: e.g. Intel, PowerPC, MIPS, etc. with Windows CE kernel. ROMable / execute-in-place, ROM file system, demand paging. Soft Input Panel SIP (virtual keyboard).
Describes Anoto technology for an optical "smart paper" digitizer, using modified virtual raster pattern marks: position determination using fourier analysis.
Mathematical position-encoding pattern using different sized (large/small) dots on paper etc. for optical stylus digitizer.
Report on back-propagation neural network: performance recognition accuracy went down when more than 12 characters were in the handwriting test set. Handwriting styles had drastic effects on recognition accuracy. Somewhat unencouraging about neural networks: training of a neural network can be laborious.
Instant messaging / interactive games using "uninterpreted handwriting" (electronic ink) on hand-held PDAs. Compare with Slate DayTimer, Bricklin. Sketches instead of smilies/emoticons. Shared canvas (whiteboard): users played interactive tic-tac-toe, shared sketches for fun.
Mobility aids for the blind: Teletact hand-held laser telemeter, Vigitact infra-red proximity/bump-avoidance sensor. vibratory/haptic vibration output better than audio for beginners, not affected by ambient noise environment. Experienced users prefer audio, finer results.
RotoView (product) tilt user interface for hand-held devices with orientation sensors (gyrocompass, accelerometers). Tilting does a scroll function for small displays. Non-linear tilt profile for fast and slow scroll. Cites to Rekimoto 1996 on Tilting Interface, Rock 'n Scroll by Bartlett.
Tutorial on software design and design patterns, using the Scheme object-oriented programming language. Intended as software design course for liberal-arts majors. Defines method == procedure.
Generate private "signing" key from on-line (or off-line) signatures. Based on 10 "good" signature samples, generates public/private key pair, only retains public key. Stresses importance of using only "good" signature examples, on average user needs 1.4 signature attempts to get a signature producing a private key that matches the save public key used for authentication. Notes that handwritten signatures by nature less unique than fingerprints, iris patterns, other biometrics.
Capacitive-matrix touchpad/fingerprint sensor, determines center in both X and Y position for position, "mass signal" for on/off (contact area). Rolling fingertip for more precise position control. Images. No discussion of multiple touches, nor palm rejection.
FinePoint electromagnetic digitizer, former engineering team from Kurta/Mutoh America OEM Pen-Based Products group. MagicPoint TV-14 Video Tablet: integrated transparent touchscreen, LCD video display, drivers.
Optical mouse in (thick) pen housing: includes handwriting recognition software, shape recognition software riteShape for sketching. Compare with Anoto. Web Memo Plug-in for Internet Explorer for electronic ink annotation on web pages. ritePen handwriting recognition.
Optical mouse in (thick) pen housing: includes handwriting recognition software, shape recognition software riteShape for sketching. Compare with Anoto. Web Memo Plug-in for Internet Explorer for electronic ink annotation on web pages. ritePen handwriting recognition.
Multi-touch Touchpad digitizer tablet with built-in gesture recognition. Gestures for electronic games multiple gestures. multi-finger game gestures include trigger, activate, point and fire gestures.
Additional materials in paper file. Shows multi-touch/multi-finger gestures/hotkey mappings for Windows: Editing/Search (cut, copy, search, redo, etc.), File and Window manipulation (up directory, save, open file, maximize/minimize window, etc.), Scroll and Zoom.
Review of Fingerworks multi-touch "TouchStream ST" keyboard.
Multitouch surface from Fingerworks: multiple-finger gestures, zero-force. Proprietary technology.
Explanation of Fingerworks multi-touch technology: 2D grid permits "paw-print" images of all touching on surface, non-scalable 1-D projection sensor arrangement of touchpad. Refers to Wayne Westerman PhD thesis 1999, or two Fingerworks patents.
compare with deferred recognition by Slate.
On-line/real-time handwriting recognition (actually, electronic ink) from video images. Examples show a great deal of interpolation using model of handwriting dynamics, position determination misses many points.
PHANToM pantographic 3D haptic pointer used in virtual reality environment to explore interferences in virtual assembly of mechanical parts. PHANToM devices must not be to far (line of sight, position, size) out of accordance with user's visual perception of environment.
Mentions Elographics resistive-film design 1977, Infrared touchscreen used underwater: cites advantages of touchscreen technologies for electronic voting, but does not mention other security considerations.
Combined touch tablet sensor and haptic pixels "haptels". Can show textures, and since combined with touch sensor, only needs to actuate haptel actuators where there is a touch. Compare display portion with Opticon? Cites to Kaplow, 4,202,041. Also cites to active multi-touch input surface (AMTIS) by Fish. See also RE42,064.
Point-and-press with stylus/pen tip: Pop-up tracking menus that follow cursor/stylus, compare with earlier work on marking menus: avoids tool palette round trips to a menu button at a particular location. Bull's-eye menus. Dwell behavior optional (gesture). Dwell/press-and-hold: may have second threshold in "tracking boundaries", or in "drags in the outside region" to engage a function. Movement of pen without contacting edge.
Overview of gesture-based interfaces: Describes retro-fitted gesture interfaces on exiting applications a "Boring Gesture Systems", gesture-based user interfaces will require new forms of interaction: PenInputPanel of Microsoft TabletPC.
Ambiguity of recognition, and of segmentation of handwriting/sketch strokes.
Change cursor to indicate where a stylus is in "hover" over a fixed menu on a hardware tablet surface (versus displayed menu).
Domain-specific sketching system: Gesture-based sketching/drawing/editing system for military combat planning using projected maps and information. Most gestures delimited by user pressing mode button (Gesture/Finish), rather than pen-up or timeout. Glyphs (recognized symbols) include road paths, terrain boundaries, as well as symbolic glyphs.
Wristwatch/smartwatch with touchscreen, Palm OS. References also cite Microsoft MSN Wrist Net smartwatch.
Reference handbook on sensors: capacitive and other tactile sensors used for touch screens and robotic tactile skin sensors. Piezoelectric contact sensors and lateral (sliding) force. Resistivestomer sensor for force/pressure. Section on MEMS micro-etched mechanical sensors.
Touchglobe and Touchpad: multi-touch input devices using sensor skin of piezo-electric polymers that can be formed on any surface: voltage potential from pressure detected by grid-structured foil.
(PDF Portfolio) installation file .exe for JAWS Screen Reader for windows version 5.0, with extracted Help files and manuals (also as PDFs). Compare with outSpoken, VoiceOver for Mac/IPhone, WindowEyes. Accessibility for visually impaired: keyboard navigation only, multiple voices, unrecognized window classes can be assigned to be handled as different (known) class. Note: Customizing JAWS for Windows: Creating a Graphic Label Manually.
JAWS screen reader: automatic language detection in HTML; Virtual cursor / place marker; personalized settings per web site; Navigate directly to UI elements by type (next button, etc.); labeling of graphics (example: check/unchecked graphics can be labeled to be spoken).
Mira tablet: display with touchscreen/digitizer, wireless link to PC -- not a Tablet PC, separate hardware. Demonstrated by Bill Gates at Consumer Electronics Show.
Research group investigating various whiteboard systems for university instruction and remote education, using commercial products. Points out useful things of traditional chalkboard/whiteboard: high contrast, large size, easy to use. Handwriting recognition to enter mathematical equations for plotting easier than keyboard during a lecture. Termination of handwriting is a down-left gesture / new-line symbol. Clients software is java-enabled browser (downloaded Java client.) Mimio (from Virtual Ink) ultrasonic digitizer pen not usable due to delays (from filtering to remove digitizer jitter). Wacom tablet with LCD projector: disadvantage is visual parallax with rear-mounted digitizer. Numonics and Hitachi digitizer whiteboards best. Cites Xerox Park Ubiquitous Computing whiteboard; Zombieboard (camera reading whiteboard, electronically subtract image of human). MIT Transboard: electronic ink for collaboration without handwriting recognition. Electronic whiteboard with voice (similar to WANG Freestyle, but real-time?) by Thomas Ottman of U. Freiburg "Extended Whiteboard". eBeam whiteboard similar to Mimeo, but records voice.
Fraunhofer Institute: video recognition of where hand gestures are pointing (by moving a mouse cursor) and simulating mouse clicks. Thus would be compatible with standard computer.
Fujitsu Stylistic 3500 tablet computer / pen computer. Resistive-film touchscreen (no proximity/hover), optical liquid between two layers of digitizer (sic). Documentation refers to side-button on stylus, instead a right-mouse-button hotpad icon just off screen (compare with The Guide). One user-definable off-screen hotpad, generates Windows messages in OS via DLL. Windows98 with Windows Pen Services 2.0 (formerly known as PenWindows) with CIC HRS 5.0.5 HandWriter recognition. Also includes CIC PenX 2.02. Both with on-screen virtual keyboards, handwriting pad. CIC PenX has circle-letter gestures like Pen Windows 1.0, copy gesture generates control-X windows keyboard short-cut, etc.. Had MobilePoint port of PenPoint (see GO Microsoft).
Fujitsu Stylistic 3500 pen tablet computer. Off-screen hotpads, similar to off-screen hotpads for The Guide. Resistive-film digitizer, warranty on scratches on display invalidated if used without a "screen protector". Had MobilePoint port of PenPoint. See GO Microsoft.
Position paper by Fujitsu on Microsoft's Tablet PC initiative: handwriting recognition accuracy barely improved since 1989 and first pen tablets (sic). Compares Tablet PC hardware compatibility requirements with pre-existing Fujitsu pen tablets: "hover"/electromagnetic digitizer versus resistive "passive" digitizer tablet. Notes Microsoft's emphasis on electronic ink / digital ink instead of handwriting recognition. Overall cautious about Tablet PC initiative.
User interface gestures for SmartSkin multi-touch capacitive tablet: has hardware illustration of SmartSkin mesh sensor. Two-finger to rotate an object, two finger pinch/zoom, two hand for rotating/moving two graphical objects at the same time. Also shows sweeping multiple objects ("marble market") with two forearms/hands. Compare with Kruger Videoplace?
Multi-touch (actually, full-contact) user interface technique using Rekimoto SmartSkin capacitive table: user can sweep objects together with whole hand or whole arm, simulated repulsive force gradient to bulldoze objects.
Haptic transducer for adding click/vibration haptic feel to a touchscreen or touch panel digitizer. Refers to UnMouse by MicroTouch as using whole touch panel as a large push switch that can be added to any touch panel/touchscreen. Physical click sensation (versus vibration) particularly helpful in noisy environments, where a simulated audible click cannot be heard. Mounting transducer on rear of hand-held PDA reduces power used, because tactile feedback conveyed to contact position of grasping hand.
Technical specifications on GSM cell phones / smartphones circa 2001..2004. Models include Ericsson R390 partial flip-phone EPOC operating system; HTC 9500 Windows Mobile / Pocket PC Phone Edition resistive touchscreen; i-mate JASJAR with rotatable/convertible touchscreen and full keyboard, Mitsubishi Trium Mondo; Motorola A6188 resistive touchscreen; NEC N600 flip phone resistive touchscreen;; Qtek 1010; Sagem WA 3050; Samsung SPH-I300; Siemens SX45 Windows CE; Tel.Me. T918 feature phone (candy-bar) small touchscreen.
Citation to Fingerworks multi-touch input as similar to in-air gestures shown in movie "Minority Report", based on Philip K. Dick novel.
Bill Gates Keynote speech COMDEX 2001. Show Tablet PC products from multiple vendors: notebook convertible TabletPC, switches from landscape to portrait. Portfolio (slate). Small form factor (compare with UMPC and OQO?).
Tablet PC convertible: obtained as working device, may need stylus.
On a single-touch touchpanel (e.g. resistive, acoustic, etc.) determine two touches (double multi-touch) by inferring the position and timing of the overlapping second touch by the rate of change of the input.
Haptic feedback output to touch-sensitive tablet surface indicating where user is touching on the surface, so that user need not look at the display. Drag-extend gesture using different portions of the display.
Circular (arctuate) gestures, large diameter for coarse input value, small diameter for finer adjustment. Direction of circular motion (clockwise / counter-clockwise) determines whether valuator is increased or decreased. Figure-S motion also accepted for up/down.
X-Windows window manager extension for rotating orientation of display (landscape/portrait) in particular for small portable PDA handheld computers. Refers also to accelerometer gestures ("throw") from one computer to another. Cites to Itsy.
Capacitive grid touchscreen using interpolation for fine position determination, recognition of double-tap gestures, others, based on pressure (contact area of finger) and time. Cites to several earlier capacitive grid touchscreens.
See 6,380,931: Capacitive grid touchscreen using interpolation for fine position determination, recognition of various drag gestures.
Pressure/force-sensing touchpad used as keypad: four force sensors at four corners of surface, detects both location (within keypad) and lateral force. Full alphabetic keyboard replacement by detecting both key pressed, and subsequent lateral push: compare with Buxton marking-menu keyboard? touchpad may be transparent. Cites to QuikWriting, other systems for eye-tracking and other virtual keyboard input.
Essay of how handwritten markings/annotations are made on documents including underlining, highlighting, lasso (gesture), attention marks. User interface with multiple marking instruments in a menu (photographic images of markers, eraser, pencils, etc.), special electronic tablet/pen with zoom in/out side button, reverse end is for moving document (not eraser). Representation of annotation in XML (but how tied to physical layout of document?). No mention of Anoto, or earlier electronic ink.
Unistroke single-stroke character recognition. Cites Gabelsberger Shorthand and Organk PenPut character recognition.
Has very long recitation of other publications, which appear to be taken from this bibliography. Also cites responses in Xerox v. 3Com patent lawsuit: the Unistroke case concerning Palm?
Gesture-based PointScreen uses human body as input medium / device.
Gesture input capacitive whiteboard from Fraunhofer Institute, technology similar to Theremin electrostatic device.
Paper on outSPOKEN World screen reader, developed specifically for GUI interfaces.
PhotoMesa semantically zoomable user interface (ZUI) for viewing photographs on small-format PDA display. Cites to Pad++ etc.
Pointing device using a single finger: basically a small patterned touch tablet with electrostatic sensing, fine enough to detect image of ridges of fingerprint on finger, and correlate images to see how the fingertip is moving.
Move cursor with stylus/touchscreen/tablet different distances depending on what the cursor is over: e.g. on a map, different slipperyness if over simulated water, slope, sand oil slick, boat in water.
Divide touch-sensitive tablet into zones, so can do palm rejection. Detect touches in different zones simultaneously for multiple simultaneous activation points (multi-touch): sort them out by actual activation time to determine which inputs were unintended. Dividing into zones can be done algorithmically by only scanning a portion of the tablet. Palm rejection.
Multitouch touchpad using array of force-sensing resistive sensors, covered by a pad (to spread forces). Cites to Baxter for capacitive sensors.
Tabletop mix of real and virtual objects. Real objects examples are pen (both physical ink, and electronic stylus for interacting with virtual objects), laptop, cup, etc. Prototype uses 6DOF Wacom tablet with stylus. Dragging/lifting gestures and unistroke gestures. Magnetic trackers on physical objects.
Touchscreen smartphone disables touchscreen when in proximity to user's body (ear). Uses separate IR infrared sensor for proximity.
window management: show windows as rotated 3D projections (sideways) on a 3D carousel image, user can scroll/flick/rotate carousel image to see application windows.
GUI for scrolling through hierarchical/tree structured information display.
Time-delayed neural network TDNN for handwriting/gesture and speech recognition. Refers to dynamic time warping applied to lexicon dictionary, looking for least-cost / highest-probability (plausibility) path through a set of words. Important feature is points with high change in derivative of position i.e. points of high curvature (corners): compare with feature extraction of systems such as CIC and PenPad, IBM elastic matching. Some reference to the segmentation problem (cutting electronic/digital ink into strokes).
FlowMenu, variation on pop-up pie menus / marking menus on a large wall display, flowmenu brought up by barrel button on chalk/stylus: menu selections can be multiple passes through section of single pie menu. Describes large display with marking (pie) menus as "digital wallpaper". Hierarchical menu effectively done in one stroke. Handwriting recognition on graphical sheets, electronic tracing paper for drawing. Items on display (desktop) may be minimized by moving to top of display, where they become thumbnails but remain active.
Interactive Mural, large whiteboard tablet display: prototype used back-projection display. FlowMenu: pop-up menu appears at pen location when use presses stylus pen, so no UI clutter on screen. Automatic zooming of virtual writing/drawing sheets when moved into working area (ZoomScape). Recognition (Calligrapher) performed on all electronic ink strokes, showing in lower left of display. Logging of previous state (compare with Wang Freestyle "Forever Desktop"). Cites to PenPoint, Momenta, Palm, marking menus.
PADD / Paper Augmented Digital Documents. Stroke collector for ink annotation applications on paper documents using Anoto digitizer pattern: also cites to Xax, DigitalDesk, Ariel, and others.
Course notes, tablet and electronic paper computing: tabletop systems, Anoto pattern paper, bi-manual/two-handed interactions, tactile/haptic feedback, tablet PC, Wang FreeStyle electronic ink annotation. Cites to FingerWorks and SmartSkin for multi-touch for bi-manual/multi-touch. Recal system for automatic indexing of stroke, audio, voice notetaking.
Human gestures in remote desktop / whiteboard application: intermittent network delays (jitter) makes it hard for human users to follow movements and gestures -- adding a trace (or multiple shadows) behind makes it easier to use for tracing routes, areas, moving objects, and human recognition of unistroke character shapes. Cites to PenPoint and Kurtenbach on machine recognition of gestures in a UI.
Publication list for virtual retinal display: projection directly onto human retina. Primary focus is as accessibility technology for visually impaired.
Windows Mobile PAD and cell phone: slide-to-unlock in hardware mentioned on pages 10, and 31 (for the battery).
Transparent conductive grid tablet digitizer. Silicon dioxide covers non-conducting areas to reduce visibility of pattern. Mentions dummy features (for optical fill-in), transparent grid, near field capacitive touchscreen.
Embodied user interface: Hand-held device with accelerometer in a display: user input is by gestures moving device: pitch, roll, slosh, snapping, tapping, fanning. Device automatically changed from portrait to landscape mode based on how it was held: compare with iPhone accelerometer. Cites to earlier work on accelerometers, graspable user interfaces. Speech output (DECtalk), TalkSoft speaker-independent small-vocabulary speech recognition used in multimedia e-mail user interface.
VisorPhone user guide: cellular phone plug-in module for Springboard expansion slot interface on Palm PDAs. Smartphone with touchscreen interface. PDA battery in cellular phone module, mounts on back of PDA. Integration of SMS text messages with email messaging from contact list address book. Cellular data integrated with Palm PDA support.
Dwell time using human gaze/eye-tracking (accessibility) compared with mouse clicking using an on-screen predictive keyboard. Mentions adaptive dwell time, shorter time for more skilled users. Adjustable press-and-hold as "dwell time".
Handwriting/gesture recognition by nearest-distance template matching -- compare with elastic matching? Editing of Lisp programs by editing node/tree structure of program (LISP): compare with Plamondon? GTEdit: Gesture-based Tree Editor.
Different mouse input operations simulated based on touching time on a touch panel. Direction of scrolling depending on press-and-hold time.
Touchscreen/mouse GUI with transparent/translucent widgets (menus, tools) etc. Outlines on translucent elements make them easier for user to see.
Cites tablet computer as starting in 1989, focus includes portability, not just handwriting. WinPad as Microsoft effort *after* Windows for Pen Computing.
Refers to single stroke glyphs used as modifiers to characters already recognized, or to next stroke: e.g. to make be recognized as a punctuation mark; presented as alternative to Unistroke recognition, especially for single-character (palmtop) input with limited writing area -- Unistroke, Graffiti.
Has extensive bibliography, including at least one reference to an internal/non-public (Litvin?): appears to have numerous references taken from this bibliography. Cites to PenDOS, Linus, Blatt gestures for spreadsheets at Wang in 1989. File has notes on Unistroke.
Smartphone with graphical objects activated by input via contact-sensitive transducer (resistive, electrostatic, or acoustic touchscreen digitizer, or touch strip), momentary number of contacts during time interval (e.g. double-tap?), moving contact (for scrolling). Cited by examiner Touchscreen 575.
DataGlyphs: PEDGUI (Printed embedded data graphical user interfaces). Information encoded on the pixels in a passive printed -- or also active -- display can be read by a stylus optical sensor. Refers specifically to "address codes" embedded in a pattern, such that the sensor can read position (like a digitizer?) from the pattern underneath: uses term "address carpets": contrast with Sekendur, Anoto. "paper intermedium" by Bobrow et al. MagicLens (which see) on printed documents: encyclopedia pictures, etc.
Self-clocking glyph codes: Encoded pattern (modified stippling, small diagonal marks in two orientations for 0/1) in printed material, optical image capture pen reads patter, takes action on decoded value. Cites to Anoto, Rekimoto pick-and-drop.
Microsoft/DOJ antitrust/anti-monopoly case over NetScape NS web browsers. Richard A. Posner appeals-court judge intervening. Break-up order by Judge Jackson. Book ends right after final decisions, tone is negative for Microsoft's future.
Electronic book / tablet computer / laptop (?) with touchscreen or stylus input, wireless access and video camera.
For virtual/on-screen keyboard on touchscreen, automatically shift/adjust fine positions of keys based on frequency and patterns of use (for consistent inaccuracies). Consistency based on user handedness and hand extensions. Basically a slight shift in target boundaries to match user's consistent offsets. Compare with stroke/ink targeting in PenPoint/PenApps/W4PC.
Microsoft assignee, abstract says "Tool Glass" UI. Semi-transparent Tool window is blended in when non-preferred hand/finger touches touchscreen, fades out when non-preferred finger removed, so that tool window does not clutter/obscure when not used / on-demand.
Survey of input technologies: includes multi-touch, touchscreen, gestures.
Gesture of tapping two tablets (Tablet PCs) with accelerometers together to join them into one extended virtual display: synchronous gesture refers to gesture involving two separate devices.
Rear-projection display touchscreen using image rays -- looks similar to display scan for CRT. Infrared light projected on rear of screen, passive optical stylus with a reflective tip (in infrared), CCD camera to detect reflection, calculate position coordinates. Not sure why it needs a CCD camera, if this is projecting a ray, seems like position could be determined only from timing. Option of multiple infrared rays. Spot ray projector for infrared and projector for visual image at right-angle incident angles to reduce interference.
Telephone-like virtual keypad on touchscreen, direction of stroke from key determines character/function input. Compare with Buxton keyboard?
Museum article on PenPoint, EO Personal Communicator from 1991, 1993 (in Russian).
Biometric smart pen BiSP for signature verification/authentification, writer identification. Combines X/Y position, 3D force/pressure sensors (lateral force + Z force), acoustic signals generated by handwriting and speech, fingerprint scanner, optical scanner/camera for paper. File contains additional references on Biometric Smart Pen Project through 2015: grip sensors, biometric toothbrush sensor, etc.
remove property MicrosoftTabletPenServiceProperty from dialog window on Tablet PC to disable press-and-hold gesture, because it can be confused with mouse hold on button, such as for audio recording -- example of conflict between mouse and stylus input, or of different behavior for press-and-hold (e.g. audio recording).
Rotate windows showing image (e.g. of a menu) to be right-side-up (portrait/landscape) for multiple users surrounding a display surface table. See Rotatable Google.
KidPad: drawing program for children using graphical tools, tool boxes instead of graphical menus or simple icons. Tools can be picked up in GUI.
Ink gestures recognized using Chebychev Polynomials and Bayes net. Refers to an ink gesture being included in a stroke: gesture is part of a larger stroke? Examples include gestures similar to PenPoint "flick" gestures. Claims specific to Chebychev polynomials used in recognition. Compare with "unimplemented glyphs" in Microsoft Tablet PC. Compare with Hullender similar gestures from PenPoint to Microsoft (appear as "Unimplemented Glyphs" in MSDN documentation.).
Ink gestures recognized using Chebychev Polynomials and Bayes net.
Refers to an ink gesture being included in a stroke: gesture is part of a larger stroke?
Haptic feedback used in pointing/mouse with motion-impaired users, using Logitech Wingman force-feedback mouse generating both vibration and force-feedback. Gravity well around pointing targets helpful, velocity and acceleration damping.
Announcement of ink-manager SDK in Java and C++ for electronic ink time-stamped ink strokes, ink annotation, character/handwriting recognition. Was announced about the time of PenWindows, PenPoint, before PenDOS from CIC. Note that "ThinkPad"in 1991 referred to pen PCs, not to generic laptops.
ThinkScribe digital notepad: separate digitizer, combined with ThinkPad Tablet PC, sold as TransNote product. Thus two digitizer tablets?
Electronic ink / ink editing applications: My Ink Files, Ink Viewer, Ink Clipboard, note-taking with Lotus Notes and Microsoft Outlook. Mentions Graphics Tablet Mode, operates as absolute-position mouse input for pen-enabling via mouse emulation. Uses separate TransNote/ThinkScribe digital notepad for capturing ink and later transferring to PC -- compare with Anoto application.
Hand-hold OCR scanner, includes handwriting recognition (numerals/digits only), text-to-speech voice output, bar-code scanner. Text recognition uses syntax pattern recognition for specific languages. Accessibility aid? Contrast sensor with Anoto.
Technical information, software, support on 1997 Toshiba T100X pen-windows pen-computing tablet computer.
Touch-sensitive (touchpad) keyboard cover, cover is touch-sensitive but shaped/contoured for the separate character "keys".
Electromechanical 3D digitizer, desktop sized. Software drivers for DOS and Windows.
List of third-party products using Immersion haptic feedback components, touchpad sensors: HP Force Feedback Web Mouse, Logitech iFeel Mouse, Saitek Touch Force Optical Mouse, Kensington Orbit 3D trackball.
Data sheet for mechanical-linkage 3D digitizer, for taking data for 3D modeling software (Solidworks, AutoCAD, Rhino3D etc.) Also used as 3D "mouse" to control camera views, define animation trajectories. (Would need 6DOF input?).
Recording and displaying videos and speech on a hand-held device. Compare with video editing with Buxton/Kurtenbach?
Refers to Slates and Handled devices using stylus-based input (pen-computing), but not covered in this guide.
Electronic signature touchpad, cites to ESIGN Act 2000, Model Notary Act 2002, HIPAA and Patriot Act requirements. See also CIC "sign-it" software.
(In Spanish)Conference on user interface future, includes review articles on touchscreens (pantallas tactiles), tablet/pen computers (tabletas), electronic whiteboards (pizarras electronicas), ubiquitous computing (computacion ubicua), digitizer tablet(tableta digitalizadora) etc.
Filing date 1995. GUI with transparent/translucent overlapping windows or objects, on pen computer with touchscreen and stylus. A vestigial outline or simplified form of the object underneath is shown on the obscuring window.
Haptic feedback / tactile display: focused ultrasound at 1MHz to 5Mhz works both by radiation pressure and direct stimulation of somatic nerves. Neurophysiological/engineering study, not computer application per se. See later work.
Eyes-front gesture user interface using image detection of hand and fingers.
Multi-user shared tabletop display with multiple users: each user uses separate mouse and keyboard, or remote connection.
International Center for Disability Resources on the Internet. Disability/Accessibility design often useful to other users in other ways. First PDA intended for the deaf (US Pat. 3746793), W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.
Speculative concept paper (?) for using pen and paper as interface to computer: does cite to Anoto, not to Digital Desk or Wellner. Refers to model file for each paper document (definitions of fields, their type -- tick vs. dat vs. action -- and location on the paper): compare with Anoto paper forms definition? Speculative about hardware: refers to optical/infrared tablet digitizers as "Sensor clamp", cites to OTM Technologies VPen laser 3-D digitizer pen for tracking motion. Confuses three-point and four-point calibration of digitizer.
Use of patterned data glyphs/ two-dimensional address codes, printed on paper to encode position information, first examining the pattern to determine the orientation of the paper, and then to again analysing to determine the position. Compare to Anoto in particular, also to similar Microsoft patent.
Chapter 2 discusses digitizer technologies, classifies them as resistive, electrostatic (which can determine tilt angle of the pen???), electromagnetic. Discusses nonlinearity distortions in digitizer due to ferrous metal and nearby electronic components. Discusses visual parallax due to refraction from protective glass, not from front-mounting of digitizer tablet over the display. Special problems of double-clicking versus double-tapping gesture, hand motion during pointing and hovering in proximity. Mentions barrel buttons on pen. Section "Tablet Computing Comes of Age" quotes Kaplan book on dramatic history of GO and Microsoft on PenPoint and pen computing, but gives no mention to Marlin Eller book on same history from Microsoft point of view to eliminate PenPoint. Jarret listed on Keely patents for Microsoft. Compare with Detachable networking on PenPoint.
Text entry similar to Quikwriting: user touches on key on virtual keyboard, gets pop-up pie-menu for next character (e.g. vowels after consonants).
Review of TacTex MTC Express Multi-touch Controller: Touchpad with X/Y/Pressure at data rate of 200 points/second, resolutions approximately 1 mm or 25 points/inch. Proximity (in X and Y?) effect affects accuracy when touch points are close together.
(in German) Corpus.e commercial product: User puts on "magical skin" tight body suit with pattern of targets, single camera products 3D model of body using structure-through-motion. Compare with Chen 2010. Application area is fitting of medical prosthesis, etc.
(in German) Lecture notes on haptic and multimedia input systems. Devices without computer-generated feedback include mouse, pressure-sensitive tablets, and touchpads (multi-touch) with gestures. Cites 3-D force mouse, Logitech ultrasonic mouse with 6 DOF degrees of freedom. MTC Express/Tactex multi-touch device with interpolated values of taxels (touch pixels). Describes haptic-somatic systems using somatic sensing of body position as the "feedback". Datagloves include Cyberglove, Cybergrasp, CyberForce products. Motion tracking, neuronal implants.
Review of handheld computers / PDAs for use in construction industry: Palm OS, Symbian OS, Windows CE Os, Java. Bar code reading, RFID. GPS mapping software (Pharos, Delorme), GPS data logging. Biometric security (built-in fingerprint sensor: thermal). RotoView streaming video, and orientation sensor to allow viewing of larger virtual displays by tilt/scroll.
Report date is 2001, but appears to have (forward looking?) references to July 2003.
Wristwatch computer (Linux, X11) with touchscreen. Focuses on power management -- reducing the number of turned-on pixels, etc.
Optical tactile sensor. Duplicate elasticity of human finger in deformable plastic, with optical markers. Internal camera detects displacement of markers, determines X/Y/Z forces on the sensor body. Application is telepresence, tactile sensing similar to human. Compare to TacTex and similar touchscreens / tablets.
Three-dimensional solid-form drawing using two-dimensional input from a mouse, using a projected silhouette of the two-dimensional input. www.merl.com.
Excerpt of Alan Kay discussing (with audience of kids) concept of Dynabook: states had stylus for drawing (no other use), keyboard for input. Paper model.
Virtual reality VR painting, brushes buckets other objects tracked by flock of birds sensors, user/artist paints in three dimensions, can view work by physically moving around. Ability to replay painting process by timeline. Cites to graspable user interfaces.
Highlight/fade-in image of a tool in proximity of a stylus, depending on height in proximity. Or when stylus is in proximity, bring up a pie-menu (pop-up marking menu). Shows rotatable ribbon window with options for editing text, matches rotation of next and maintains relative position. Compare with movable tools of Buxton et al?
Charge-ratio(?) capacitive touchscreen, single layer of triangular electrodes running full length. Fine wires preferred over ITO. Alternate geometries for triangular/tapered sensor conductors, e.g. zig-zag. Traces with strongest signals determined first. Note on ITO micro-cracking.
X/Y grid touchscreen/tablet sensor, combine capacitive sensor and force-resistor sensor in each sensing point. Alternative is force sensors in the four corners: compare with PadMouse by Microtouch? One use is to reject "false touches". See EP 2261781.
X/Y grid touchscreen/tablet sensor, combine capacitive sensor and force-resistor sensor in each sensing point. One use is to reject "false touches". Has numerous references to operating in "drag mode". Cites to other dual-sensor tablet/touchscreens, e.g. to recognize stylus and finger independently in one device: multi-touch.
Patent (under Australian IP law) for the Wheel. Patent application made to point out difficulties in examination standards of new Australian patent law. Granted, later retracted. Inventor, along with the Australian Patent Office, received an IgNobel award for this patent.
Tip-force (pressure) measurement in inking pen using variable-inductive coil at top end with spring loading. Compare with Walcom (not cited)?
Motion detection (not absolute position) using laser light source and speckle pattern of surface, detect with diffraction grating to measure movement of speckle pattern. Part of OTM digital pen/tablet technology? Does not require any particular pattern on the surface.
Trainable gesture recognition and command definition for mouse gestures, or any cursor positioning / cursor directing devices (tablet, touchpad, finger pad, stylus, etc.). Slide-to-unlock?
If visual feedback in cursor movement does not match haptic feedback/feel, it throws user dragging performance off, even with practice, even if users are forewarned.
Early stages of web design (like other graphical user interfaces) dominated by paper sketches of pages and links between pages. DENIM mock-up Paper post-it notes placed on whiteboard touchscreen / computer vision, used as tangible object (electronic lines, tap to get pop-up context menu, move post-it to change position). Physical post-it note can be replaced by electronic representation. Gestures include drawing relationship links between notes. Multiple electronic pens (color).
Automatic layout of graphical objects, user-interface elements. Compare to PenApps? Compare with Wobbrock.
Broad review of virtual keyboards / text input. Includes speech recognition, handwriting recognition, ASL sign language. Keyboard touch typing speed about 50 WPM, handwriting on paper 30 WPM, speech and ASL 250 WPM. Visual pointing panel (accessibility), finger-joint angle wearable keypad, Thumbcode touch data glove, FingeRing (see), multi-point (multi-touch) touchpad from DSI Datotech Systems, projected keyboard image, Senseboard (see).
Drag-and-drop from one display to another (or from printed material to display/computer) using pointing wand with CCD camera to recognize 2D-matrix bar codes. Small display on hand-held unit to confirm "get" (pick) operation.
Rotation necessary in tabletop touch display surfaces: Cafe' Table, InteracTable, ConnecTable, InfoTable. Rotation can be done by user via gesture, direct manipulation etc. or automatic (e.g. as user drags virtual object to their location).
Pop-up context menus (variation on pie menus and marking menus), menu is brought up by pointing with cursor and pressing space bar or other key on keyboard. Avoids use of press and hold. Note: press-and-hold counterexample, not tied to right mouse button. Filing date 1998.
Pop-up radial marking menu combined with linear menu, menu is brought up by pointing with cursor and pressing space bar or other key on keyboard. Avoids use of press and hold. Note: press-and-hold.
Wellner-like SmartDesk/DataDesk tabletop touchscreen user interface combining virtual documents and physical documents (electronic and paper). Compare with Wang Freestyle, e.g. stacking of papers/objects.
Palm PDA smartphone. Electronic ink notes during a call.
Resistive overlay screens, capacitive overlay digitizers, scanning infrared touch screens, surface acoustic wave SAW. Overview of resistive film for PDAs such as Palm.
Tactile tablet with tactile overlays (compare: braille-emboss), educational aid.
Overview of Sketch recognition systems for designing UIs: SILK (Sketching Interfaces Like Krazy), Electronic Cocktail Napkin, Etchapad. Unprocessed electronic ink images can be animated to try out the interactions of the user interface. Silk: rub-out/squiggle, lasso/group, unistroke X, spiral and caret gestures.
Audio touch tablet user interface for the blind, example is geography teaching applications. A fixed tactile map is placed on a touch sensitive tablet (not specified, but perhaps capacitive since it must send through the map paper). Computer gives different responses or software for the same touch areas: for example, user touches on a country in a (tactile) map for software about where different animals live, or the names of the countries, etc. Tactile == static haptics?
Technical Dictionary of computer terms.
Pen with multiple features.Mmarking properties: can write in different colors, line widths or patterns (e.g. dotted lines) based on control buttons on pen. Also an optical camera for reading an encoded pattern or images on the paper -- cites to earlier "netpage" application (Compare with Anoto?), or motion information (compare with Hewitt Crane?). Very long list of co-pending applications. Cites to Dymetman.
Cellphone with soft function keys, function of button is displayed on screen. Optionally buttons can be virtual buttons on touchscreen. Rocker switch/button for scrolling.
Virtual keyboard using strokes to select different characters Compare with Buxton95 and implementation in WardJR96.
Synaptics ClearPad transparent touchscreen/tablet over small LCD display as an "enhanced" touchpad for a laptop: can show calculator buttons, app launcher buttons, clock, dialog boxes, etc. Compare with Kaplow dynamically reconfigurable keyboard. ClearPad functionality like Synaptics TouchPad, X/Y grid of conductors, junctions form capacitive sensors. Can detect multiple fingers (multi-touch), indirectly measure force from area of contact with finger. Unlike resistive screen, cPad adhered to entire display surface: new methods required for alignment, bubble-free adhesion, delamination.
patent defence: Cognex wins right to assert Laches (excessive delay in bringing claim) in patent lawsuit regarding machine vision ()Cognex pattern/OCR recognition) brought by Lemelson.
Snipping Tool applet for Tablet PC of Microsoft: clips desktop image (or window) and allows it to be annotated with electronic ink. Compare with Freestyle. Also InkShortcut (compare with PenCept recognition macros) mapping gestures to application's custom action, shape and symbol recognition, electronic ink indexing based on "perceptual" similarity of shapes: Emotive shape guides (e.g. write a sad or happy face mark).
Screen Readers Tested: JAWS for Windows, Freedom Scientific, Inc. outSPOKEN for Windows, Alva Access Group. Window Bridge, Syntha-Voice computers, Inc. Window-Eyes, GW Micro, Inc. WinVision, Artic Technologies International. Automatic labelling of graphics included in test criteria.
Embedding data (attached) to files to identify, show provenance/source, untampered. Interface to central server for sharing/access rights, purchase. States watermarks cannot be read until a file is decrypted.
iPod touchscreen with scroll-wheel designed for use with one hand while walking, doing other things. Advantageous over click and scroll-barrel interfaces.
Flexible, transparent scratch-resistant protective layer on touchscreen, capacitive pressure/force-sensing touchscreen with compressible layer, deformable conductive layer.
Computer keyboard control of display (brightness, contrast, etc.) via computer BIOS, independent of operating system functions, or custom hardware in keyboard: BIOS only reads scan codes.
User-defined/trainable gestures, with automatic system to tell defining user when gestures are similar/confusible, or may have other problems such as poor training set. Cites to other gesture system (Sensiva, KGesture, Opera web browser) for use with applications that are not gesture-aware: compare with PenCept recognition macros. Only single-stroke/unistroke gestures.
User-defined/trainable gestures, with automatic system to tell defining user when gestures are similar/confusible, or may have other problems such as poor training set. Cut/CopyPaste gestures like caret, insert and pig-tail. Refers to gestures as location-independent user interface components (whiteboard?).
Array/matrix of strain gauges for multi-touch touchpad, asserts that arrays of touch sensors alone will register nothing if the point of contact is between the touch sensors (not true for capacitive sensors in general).
Biographical information of major personalities in Apple Newton development team: Steve Capps (Finder), Walter Smith (NewtonScript, a.k.a. WallyScript), John Sculley, Michael Tchao ("Apple had been working for years on slate computers that read handwriting"), Stepan Pachkov, Larry Yaeger (Cursive Recognizer).
See also 2010 version.
Xerox Data Glyphs -- optical tablet/location pattern: see also Guimbretiere.
Electronic music keyboard with touchpad keys for multi-dimensional control, instrument synthesis: detection of angle yaw/pitch/roll/rotate gesture by analyzing changes in blob shape of a fingertip, hand, etc. (multi-touch): pressure-sensitive sensor array. Sequence of "postures" of hand/figures recognized as "gestures". Compare with Rekimoto touchscreen, piezoresistive touchpads. Related patents in file, e.g. 8,717,303, 8,743,076, 8,866,785, 8,878,810.
Electronic input enhancements for musical instruments: e.g. touchpad keys for multi-dimensional control, instrument synthesis: detection of angle yaw/pitch/roll/rotate (gestures) by analyzing changes in blob shape of a fingertip (multi-touch): pressure-sensitive sensor array. Compare with Rekimoto touchscreen, piezoresistive touchpads. Related patents in file, e.g. 8,717,303, 8,743,076, 8,866,785, 8,878,810.
(in German) Improvements to FingerMouse -- video-based real-time hand/finger tracking system for wearable computers. Difference images to detect moving hand (or other objects).
Automatic scrolling/positioning of electronic ink in a small display to simulate longer paper.
SIP Soft input panel for handwriting input switches input to text / handwriting recognition mode, versus writing/drawing or ink-editing/gesture mode: says automatic, but user must switch modes by clicking/tapping on SIP input mode icon.
Automatically reformat Web page layout for small display (including portable touchscreen device): convert single column to multiple columns, or vice versa. Also highlight multiple rectangular portions/windows that user can click on for zoomed view. Compare to AppLens? Scrolling may be multiplied or animated (smooth scrolling) in X and in Y.
Elastomeric conductive rubber: resistance decreases under pressure to that of conductor bridges of filler material. Composition has accelerated elastic return to original state. Sensitivity to match human touch on touchscreen.
Reefalo-style desktop holder for books, printed material. Mechanical design is intended to hold printed pages in very precise position for accurate alignment for digitizer. Electromagnetic or other digitizer in holder, so that user can point to things in the book. Cites to educational devices e.g. speak-n-spell.
Hand-held haptic "display", accelerometer and sideways thumb-wheel input, single actuator for output, with USB interface. Initial experimental systems include video editing, visual browsing.
Apple Knowledge Navigator: cited by Ard02 as part of pen-computing history. Apple Newton 1993, Apple Message Pad 1996, Apple eMate (no tablet/handwriting recognition?).
Physical writing in notebook (ink annotations, notes "linking" data to references) superior to plain data entry (portable, flexible, feature-rich): cites paperless office as a myth. Research project on augmented laboratory notebook using graphics table (under paper) and PDA (for access to external links) as interaction lens / data lens between physical and electronic documents. Prototype uses CrossPad tablet: Mentions Anoto as future direction for portability. Gestures: underline text of printed URL to link to internet documents. Data model is multi-layer XML: pre-printed page, electronic ink, "pasted" graphics. Cites to Toolglass and Magic Lenses.
Problems of sketch recognition are incomplete and misaligned vertices creating missing or bogus segments, drawing variability, and learning schemes for learning models. Examples are stick figures, classified to body part.
Standards list for bar codes: Numeric-only, Alphanumeric, 2-Dimensional barcodes, industry and government standards.
Whiteboard system using a projection display with a touch-screen digitizer. Multiple pens/stylus, eraser.
Describes four-point quadrilateral calibration for projected image with digitizer to compensate for projection distortion (keystone), same method used by PenCept and CIC for aligning paper to digitizer.
Correct for misalignment of digitizer and image.
Extended guide to using Microsoft Tablet PC: mentions barrel button / side switch and eraser buttons on stylus, and controls to disable. press and hold behavior can be disabled if awkward for user, or user can select side switch or press and hold. Refers to cross-functional pen styli that can also leave ink: compare with Summagraphics in 1970s. SIP Start Input Panel gesture is "shake" in proximity. Backspace (left), space (right), enter (down right), tab (up right), scratch-out gestures. Denim sketch recognition for designing web sites from Berkeley Institute for Design. Gesture shortcuts (compare with PenCept recognition macros) via Sensiva Symbol Commander -- special gesture set reminiscent of Jot/Unistroke. (Note: http://Leszynski.com did Tablet PC Power Toys in 2002) and other third-party products, e.g. sheet music editing with gestures, journal.
3D digitizer, transmitters in ends of baton (stylus), X/Y position determined from capacitive coupling to tablet surface with charge-ratio electrodes (triangular vs. width varying). Z position determined from total (absolute) coupling to sensors. "Baton" for use in musical instrument application: multiple batons/styli (multi-touch). Compare with charge-ratio tablets?
Capacitive membrane keyboard combined with capacitive touch-screen / position sensor with proximity sensing. In typing mode, force or stroke velocity of pressing key uses as a gesture to indicate bold, shift/capitalization, italics, other functions with key input (e.g. shift "&" to different character "7"). Proximity sensors are individually wired. In pointing mode senses proximity gestures that can be based on multiple fingers or shape of hand (e.g. held vertical across column).
Single-camera/video detection of finger touches for virtual keyboard, mentions stroke detection: not much detail, detailed references are all in Japanese. Cites to POBox, FingeRing.
Whitepaper on commercial signature pad: signature authentification using pressure/force plate. Force sensors at four corners of signature plate, interpolate position of single point of contact, also total force. Shows determination of physical self-resonance of plate when tapped. Cites to De Bruyne "Schreibwaage", piezoelectric, inductive force sensors.
signature authentification using pen/stylus with X/Y/Z side-force (pressure) sensors. X/Y signals converted to phi and rho polar coordinates. Neural net verification/classifier. Compare with Crane accelerometer pen? (Not cited).
Cellular-radio transceivers (cell phones) are difficult EMI/noise environment, shielding and filtering would add extra weight, size, heat, cost, and shorten battery life.
Show web browsing history as directed graph ("animation") of all pages visited, not just a single path.
Military command office with expensive electronic whiteboards and information display systems: in actual crisis, staff preferred to use large wall map with post-it notes, because the interfaces were tangible. One factor is that the tangible/physical tools are robust: continued to work when computer systems were not operational.
In military command posts, officers prefer paper maps, post-it notes, and hand-written annotations to electronic systems. Rasa adds electronic support to existing paper: paper is robust.
Simulation/perception of roughness/texture using PHANToM force-feedback stylus, combined with audio stimulus. Perception of roughness affected by spatial frequency / trough width/spacing.
Marking menu brings up slider, release button to start positioning slider, press again to move slider, move laterally to bring up further menu/option. "flicking" gesture as ballistic movement.
Flexible tape sensor using optical fibers to detect bend and twist configuration of the tape. Integrates bend position along tape. One application is body position (real-time).
Flex sensors on hand and fingers (compare with Dataglove?) used for virtual typing -- compare to projected keyboards? Cites to wearable keyboards, keypads.
Flip phone with two displays, second display shows labels for functions of keys (e.g. scroll, save, menu) Buttons may be on touchscreen display, voice recognition.
Digital signature on shareware software programs: check both integrity of software (with allowance for dynamic code changes), and authorization message/license. Cites to superdistribution (see references).
Point to a location on a screen and enter data there, by typing, voice or other means. Pointing may be by speech input, describing objects on the screen that are then located. Fine positioning by "bouncing" to a kind of object nearly based on input. Coordination of pointing and text cursors.
Printing bar codes or other encoded information on the edges of stacks of paper: cites Dataglyphs as related art.
Printing bar codes or other encoded information on the edges of stacks of paper: cites Dataglyphs as related art.
Announcements by Bill Gates at WinHEC 2001: tablet PC is large potential hardware market, tablet PC is breakthrough large market.
User interface guidelines for Windows UI. Mentions pen-and-paper mock-ups for UI design. References both press and also hold as mouse actions: pressing is positioning over an object, and then pressing mouse button. TTM_GETDELAYTIME for pop-up context-sensitive windows.
Demonstration of Microsoft MiPad PDA prototype at CES. Includes voice recognition (compare with Siri).
Programming example for TabletPC: instant-messaging communications application, appears to be a TabletPC software version of the Telautograph. Compare to whiteboard systems. Electronic ink renders to GIF if electronic ink support not available on the receiving system.
Hardware description for Pocket PC: resistive touch-panel digitizer. States that touch-panel input is mouse messages, 100 Pts/sec digitizer rate.
Mentions RAND-tablet (Grafacon) and Ivan Sutherland "Sketchpad" as first pen computers Hewette Crane 1964 input styluses (which see: without tablet, used accelerometer). Mentions Dynabook, but does not assert handwriting recognition for it. Also Grid Computing, Momenta. Attributes pen-centric computing to Hew Crane. Cites GO and PenPoint as the first operating system developed specifically for pen computing.
Shake gesture to start TIP/SIP Tablet PC Input Panel on Tablet PC.
Electronic ink / gesture integration with Microsoft Office: specifically states that Tablet PCs use an electromagnetic digitizer (with proximity) and not a resistive-touch screen: mentions palm-rest problem of resistive touch screens.
Two versions (?) of this, 2002 and 2004.
Precision pointer / acceleration algorithms for mouse input, states that it achieves smoother pointer movements. Does not discuss digitizer/touchscreen input with absolute position input, only relative-movement mouse.
Review article on handwriting recognition (cites to Stylator), 1940's and 1952 on speech recognition: Microsoft Tablet PC, states most important in practice are lexicon/dictionary, user training, hardware performance.
Microsoft Journal note-taking (electronic ink) application for Tablet PC. Also voice note: voice recording can be stored in input field similarly to electronic ink, with deferred speech recognition similar to deferred translation / deferred handwriting recognition. Input Panel applet allows handwriting anywhere on screen via transparent overlay window.
For Windows Tablet PC (prior to UMPC Ultra-mobile PC), digitizer required to be 1000 pts/inch or 5 times the display resolution, 100 (preferably 133) points/second, proximity sensing required. Note: on UMPC, requirements changed, proximity no longer required to run Tablet PC OS on UMPC. Note: confuses resolution and accuracy? Ctl-Alt-Del must be separate mechanism.
General Reference computer dictionary (Microsoft).
Tablet PC SDK documentation from MSDN, sections include Application Gestures, CollectionMode, InkCollector; InkAndGesture and GestureOnly modes. Has pictures of gesture shapes.
Section "Application Gestures and Semantic Behavior" : defined gestures include scratch-out/erase, Triangle/insert, Check-off, Curlicue/fixed (compare with proofreader's marks), Double-Curlicue/copy, double-circle/paste, left-semicircle/undo, right-semicircle/redo, Caret gesture/paste, Inverted-caret/insert, flick left / backspace, flick right / space (compare with GO flick gestures), left/right/up/down corners with directional gestures. See also 2008 version of same reference.
List of Application gestures and system gestures for Microsoft Tablet PC. Lists Tap and DoubleTap as gestures that work for both, cites modal confusion with exclamation point gesture. Notable that exclamation is used both as a gesture and as a handwriting character.
Gestures include curlicue similar to proofreaders cut/delete mark, double-curlicue. Second copy has pictures of all gestures (from Longhorn Beta of Windows 7).
Dated Jan 15 2003. Cites additional gestures to be supported: see "Unimplemented Glyphs".
Hand obscures view of display, targets should be larger. Default alignment of menus is switched to left, because predominantly right-handed users of stylus/tablet versus mouse. Windows Mouse GUI is modified for stylus input. Targeting more difficult with stylus than with mouse. Double-tap has motion with stylus. Notes differences between double-tap gesture with a stylus/digitizer tablet and double-click with mouse, tool-tips different for mouse and tablet gestures because of difficulty targeting a single pixel with accuracy with a stylus, and double-tap hard to do on the same pixel (as with a mouse). Right-handed/left-handed tooltips and menus (different sides).
Reference to modified display drivers to show ink data in conjunction with tablet/pen driver in Windows for Pen computing 1.0 (from 1992).
Tablet PC generates both mouse events and system events (gesture messages), regardless. Mentions difference between ISG_TAP tap gesture sent when pen/stylus is lifted, and WM_LBUTTON_DOWN message sent on mouse click. No mouse GUI equivalent to HOVER gesture of tablet GUI. Mouse messages useful for pointing, pen events for real-time ink.
Mentions separation of system events / Gestures from mouse input: ISG_TAP events are processed instantaneously, whereas mouse WM_ messages and mouse clicks are delayed by windows messaging service queue. DoubleTap gesture not accurate, longer time between click-like events compared to mouse. Sequence of ISG_DBLTAP and WM_DBLLBUTTON messages indeterminate.
Tablet PC gestures appear to be nearly identical list of gestures to Hullender patent. Gestures include Circle-Circle, DiagonalLeftUp, DoubleDown, all alphanumerics, TripleDown, QuadrupleTap, etc. Infinity gesture to switch in and out of gesture mode.
MouseDown and CursorDown (mouse vs. tablet/stylus) events occur on different threads, for reasons of rendering electronic ink.
Arin Goldberg, Cory Linton presentation on Tablet PC. Soft Input Panel and also Tablet PC Input Panel: can be bound to input fields in dialogs as part of application programming. Discussion of differences in electronic ink APIs and functionality between Windows Mobile / Pocket PC and Tablet PC, touch screen and proximity digitizer. Newsgroup microsoft.public.tabletpc.developernewsgroup on http://msnews.microsoft.com.
Pen as Pointing and Input Device; Designing for the Use of Handwriting Recognition; Interoperability of Ink Data; Readability; external monitors on Tablet PC; Accessibility.
See also 2006 version.
Re-publication of 1992(?) Notice about Windows for Pen computing 1.0, on sample tablet drivers for WACOM and Scriptel tablets being included with Pen OAK separately from version 3.1 of Windows SDK.
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2004 with OneNote and Journal note taker applications with editing of electronic ink, electronic ink annotation in ExCel spreadsheets.
Windows Journal note-taking application for Tablet PC using electronic ink. Includes ink editing: Lasso/circle gesture around ink to move it to another location. Add blank lines/space (not between words). Scratch out gesture to erase. Compare with Slate PenScheduler.
Mobile agent: software that moves itself to a host computer to continue executing on behalf of user when user turns off a portable computer /PDA. Original concept was General Magic with Telescript language, current (2003) technology is mostly Java. Thesis pre-dates Apple iPad/iPhone. Mentions Newton. Development platform for project was PalmOS.
Essay relating to tools that enhance cognitive function. Explanation of direct manipulation, tangible user interfaces. Vibro-tactile (haptic) feedback on mouse to show boundaries of user interface objects (iFeel mouse from Immersion TouchSense). Milekic Author of KiddyFace touchscreen interface for museum exhibits.
User-interaction seminar: Touchscreen displays. Pseudo-3D layouts, use of pressure (force) force sensing with finger, gesture and motion capture on flat touchscreens, haptic interfaces. Proximity sensing and proximity gestures. File contains additional materials.
MTC Express Multi-Touch controller with multipoint pressures (multitouch force-sensitive) using image processing interpolation to recover actual shape. Mostly about image interpolation algorithms (Pythagorean and pre-calculated sine interpolation) for multi-touch sensor: compare with Rekimoto?
Review of touchscreen tabletop displays and the approaches taken to rotating what is displayed for the users at different perspectives around the tabletop. Cites to MetaDesk. Different approaches includes rotating individual objects, and rotating the entire display UI.
Electronic whiteboard: Record and play back synchronized electronic ink and audio: compare with Wang Freestyle?
Method of decoding dataglyphs (watermark/steganographic information hidden in images) not affected by image degradation, angle of view, etc. Compare with image corrections in Anoto. Requires enough resolution to determine angles of image dots/oblongs.
Mouse Gestures with web browser. Includes drag-and-drop.
moveThreshold of class MoveThreshold: minimum distance for drag. Also XmNselectThreshold, minimum distance to move to select next character in text/drag selection.
IDE development emulator for Motorola smartphones, using Java and CodeWarrior debugger. Simulation image of virtual Motorola smartphone (similar to T720) in J2ME SDK. Mouse emulation / mouse events in smartphone.
Dataglyph: extension of error-correcting and tamper-evident properties to multiple pages.
Also published under similar title (?): A Flick in the Right Direction: a case study of gestural input: Behavior and Information Technology, Vol 24, Number 4, July 2005, pp 275-288.
Comparison of flick gestures (with a stylus) with dragging to scroll web pages, also comparison with mouse input, in PDAs. Flick gestures win. Cites study of Graffiti Unistroke alphabet (not Graffiti2/JOT).
Contains references to Unistroke gestures from various authors.
Flick forward and flick back gestures based on marking menus.
Very thin wires/conductors dimension comparable to wavelength of light, appear transparent. Tcouhscreens.
Has review of Memex by Vannevar Bush, Sketchpad by Sutherland, Flex machine and Dynabook. Shows Flex Machine with separate digitizing tablet (proposal) in 1969. Shows Parallel Textface with multi-touch (?) touchscreen in Xanadu system, 1972.
Disallowed Operational Anomaly system: dynamic modelling of program behavior using execution path patterns, deny operation when program behavior diverges from learned patterns.
Technical reference for http://Cylant.com, intrusion detection contrasted to signatures for files or SNORT network patterns.
Real-time detection of injected unauthorized code on a computer system by pattern matching to execution profiles for usual paths of code-path execution. Refers to instrumentation points, arbitrary metric points (usually branches) in code execution.
Real-time detection of injected unauthorized code on a computer system by pattern matching to execution profiles for usual paths of code-path execution. Suggests mapping programs with highly correlated behavior (?) into one model.
Reference on displays, image standards and formats, display output interface standards, types of displays (analog/digital etc.) Very little on input (touchscreens, etc.).
Using pen pressure (force), slight improvement on handwriting recognition for Kanji. Cursive writing is connected strokes within Kanji characters. Eight-direction chain codes. Test set 1016 elementary Kanji characters (samples, or characters?).
Handwritten character / abbreviation gestures, using a particular stroke to introduce an abbreviation, then not requiring all strokes to be entered to pick out defined abbreviation: relevance word retrieval. Discussion of using stopping points instead of stroke lifts to delineate/parse strokes or characters. Language reads like machine translation from Japanese.
Haptic/tactile feedback on touchscreen buttons by vibrating display when user's finger is over button image. Click on edge of button, mild vibration while on button. As user presses harder, vibrate at higher frequency. If touchscreen is not pressure sensitive, use dwell time. Cites to Immersion Technologies TouchSense tactile mouse.
Download an installation files for screen reader ASAP Automatic Screen Access Program, Access Technologies: main index links are not valid, must to go directory page. ASAP versions back to 1992.
Cellphone with optical touch screen. Sweep/flick gestures: slide-to-unlock?
MessageEase: Simplified keyboard for smartphones and hand-held PDAs using touchscreen phone-keypad. Characters input by tapping (for main character), slide/swipe in particular direction for secondary characters. Implemented on Palm OS PDAs replacing Graffiti and virtual keyboard. Compare with Buxton?
Announcement of Tablet PC on Windows XP by Bill Gates,
Wayne Westerman / Fingerworks: multi-touch TouchStream touch pads. Refers to replacing computer mouse movements with gestures across the screen. Multi-finger rotating gesture for open/close (opening a jar). TouchStream Min, TouchStream Stealth (two-handed gestures), iGesture Pad.
DENIM: Design Environment for Navigation and Information Models. Prototyping tool for web pages. Includes sketch recognition (square, rectangle, etc.) with editing with gestures, includes barrel button of stylus, handwriting recognition, gestures, pie-menus (tap with barrel button on stylus depressed). Gestures include Cut, Copy, Paste, Undo, Redo, Insert Text, several Pan/flick gestures. Hold (press-and-hold) selects object, tap draws dot. Cites to Rubine 91 gesture recognizer and gdt/SATIN. Press-and-hold: defines gesture as a stroke created by the pen that activates a command. Counterexample for press-and-hold as invocation of context menu, press-and-hold doing something else.
hand-gesture user interfaces: refers to static/positional gestures of the hands, dynamic moving gestures, and spatio-temporal gestures. menu gesture with flat hand.
Wireless (bluetooth) Nokia pen, Anoto technology, paired to Nokia (small display?) smartphone.
Human factors of device, usability, user-interface design. Usage errors are caused by poor usability design.
Digitally encoded paper with (bar code? dataglyph? electronic paper?) information for web links. Compare to Hyperlink. "digitally augmented paper", references to Digital Desk, Anoto.
See also other paper same title, different author. Paper advantages over electronic ink on tablets: low power, flexible, annotation, physical human interaction. Mentions Anoto optical pattern paper, LeapFrog education books with stylus touch to pictures, Paper++ project, but outstanding problems on interactions with paper/electronic data.
Digitally encoded paper with (bar code? dataglyph? electronic paper?) information for web links. Compare to Hyperlink.
Short essay on use of handwriting and speech recognition: refers to speech recognition system in 1952, "Automatic recognition of spoken digits".
Two-axis accelerometer pen/stylus. Cites to Hewitt Crane.
Smartphone with keyboard, menus, fax capability, optional touchscreen. Refers to tablet computer as a "workslate".
Study using SensAble Technologies PHANToM force-feedback haptic "mouse" (pantographic absolute position force-feedback devices) in groupware (whiteboard) graphical editing application. Users felt more comfortable using gestures with haptic feedback.
SensAble Technologies PHANToM force-feedback haptic "mouse" (pantographic absolute position force-feedback devices) with stylus added for fine pointing (PHANToM has 6 DOF). Both haptic and visual feedback can degrade user performance hitting targets when targets far apart, or intervening targets "snag" user motion.
Historical overview of human/computer interaction: cites to Vannevar Bush 1945, Sketchpad by Sutherland, Hypertext by Theodor Holm Helson; Mouse by Douglas Engerbart; Xerox PARC; Adele Goldberg/Dan Ingalls personal computer; etc. Note: most projects up until 1980's were US government/DARPA funded.
Combined multi-modal user interface for pen-computing gestures and voice commands. Illustration shows gesture interface as a touch interface (finger). Notes that with speech input / speech/voice recognition, screen or graphical navigation is awkward, hence use of a stylus/digitizer.
Cellphone (handheld personal communication device PCD) with GPS receiver and camera and touchscreen, user requests maps and geo-tagged data for the map to be displayed.
Server responds to GPS / map data from cellphone with GPS and touchscreen by sending map and geotagged data.
Server responds to GPS/routing request from a cellphone with GPS and touchscreen, sends back route and favorites, based on preferences in a user profile.
portable computer with touchscreen does not turn on until a particular pattern (gesture) is traced on the touchscreen or touchpad. Compare with Apple slide to unlock?
Optical tracking of multi-touch fingertips with one camera, top view. Single and double-finger gestures, hand-position (e.g. closed thumb) gestures: circle, triangle, rectangle; forward and reverse direction, not just shape. Compare with Wellner, Eyesight.
EnhancedDesk: Optical tracking of multi-touch fingertips with one camera, top view. Uses both infrared camera and color CCD camera. Single and double-finger gestures, hand-position (e.g. closed thumb) gestures: circle, triangle, rectangle; forward and reverse direction, not just shape. Compare with Wellner, Eyesight.
Describes first-cut optical processing for Anoto technology, optical digitizer pattern.
Describes coding pattern for Anoto technology of displaced dots.
Describes optical sensor for Anoto.
Image processing for Anoto optical digitizer/tablet using dot pattern on paper.
3D digitizer of sorts, mechanical rod displaced downward by hand form reverse image of hand. Shows mechanical design of rods. No citations to similar mechanical devices for carpentry, etc.
3D digitizer of sorts, mechanical rod displaced downward by hand form reverse image of hand. Demonstration in remote live musical performance between Cambridge MA and Ireland. Shows mechanical design of rods. No citations to similar mechanical devices for carpentry, etc.
3D digitizer (see other references), position of rods (scanned in rows, zig-sag) mapped to wave shape for musical performance.
3D digitizer (see other references), position of rods (scanned in rows, zig-sag) mapped to wave shape for musical performance. Examples: each rod controls distinct display echo. Compared to Korg Kaoss Pad touch pad for musical control.
Historical timeline of certain pen-computing devices: mentions AT&T EO, but no mention of GO/PenPoint/Lombard. Focus on portable product.
1956 Rand tablet digitizer Grafacon (photograph), 1983 Tandy Model 100 stylus PDA, 1975 Apple Knowledge Navigator, 1989 GRiD GRiDPad, 1991 NCR System 3125 with Windows for Pen Computing / Pen Windows, 1992 Momenta, 1993 Apple Newton Messagepad, 1995 Zenith CruisePAD, 1996 Palm Pilot 1000, 1998 Vadem Clio, 1998 Sharp Mobilon, 1999 Aqcess Qbe, 2001 ThinkPad TransNote, 2001 Microsoft Tablet PC, 2001 AirSpeak Flair, 2002 Microsoft Mira Technologies, 2001 Sony SlipTop, Amstrad PenPad. No mention of Pencept or CIC/Handwriter.
Spam and virus filtering by sending an identifier or characteristic (e.g. hash) of the file to a central server for comparison with similar identifiers or characteristics. compare with Cylant technology.
Palm Unistroke character set, except for cap lock gesture. Single tap gesture, showing punctuation shift, write in separate area to get capitals.
Announcement of Palm OS business spin-off from hardware. Cites sales figures to date, three hardware vendors.
Palm Treo 180 (Handspring), first Palm GSM smartphone. Models had both thumb-type keyboard under clamshell overlay and Graffiti handwriting recognition on touchscreen.
Mentions Graffiti 2 as CIC JOT recognizer.
(in bulk files).
contact-piezoresistive large area (ganged matrix arrays of 48x52 sensels) tactile sensor "SmartSkin". X/Y array of conductors with piezoresistive contacts at intersections, multiplexed/addressed similar to Rekimoto capacitive SmartSkin. Pictures of pressure map images /force profiles of human feet, human hand (multi-touch). Flexible, edges can be trimmed to shape because sense lines in center of matrix.
Touchscreen/touch sensors for retrofitting to large surface, including touch tables. Gesture Wall capacitive hand tracking using AC signal in human body, laser rangefinder to track multiple hands (multi-touch), acoustic knock and tap detection using differential arrival times. Jeff Han FTIR Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (in 2002), but says operates by shadow of optical sensors on side/perimeter of glass.
Barcode-like pattern is printed very small as the pixels in a printed image: optical stylus can read the Glyphtones, and thus read what part of the image, or what functional "hot-spot" you are over in the image. Compare to Anoto and Sekendur technology. Says double the data density of Barcode standard PDF417.
Barcode-like pattern is printed very small as the pixels in a printed image: optical stylus can read the Glyphtones, and thus read what part of the image, or what functional "hot-spot" you are over in the image.
Compare to Anoto and Sekendur technology.
Business and technical discussion, including print resolution.
TiltTyping, similar to EdgeWriting/Quikwriting and Unigesture, but using tilt. References to other wearable keyboards, devices for text entry.
High resolution tactile display using piezoelectric actuators mounted on the skin to produce shear strain on fingertip.
Includes historical section on filesystem development. Multiple named data stream in same file included in NFS Version 4. ACLs access control lists added with System V Release 4, prior to 1992. Also mentions "named data streams", multiple data streams in one file.
Tabletop system with electromagnetic position, identity, and orientation sensors for instrumented physical objects (pucks). Capacitive touch sensor for when object is being moved/adjusted. Objects can be positioned physically, dials and buttons for adjusting properties. Prototype used Zowie multi-object (multi-touch) tracking tablet (did not sense orientation). Experimental system for user interface alternatives to WIMP. Projection display from above: project (changeable) labels or "binding" onto pucks. Semantic zooming based on proximity of two pucks.
ritePen and riteScript handwriting recognition application for Tablet PC or Windows XP. Uses basic gestures with input, appears to make use of screen reader accessibility technology to detect input fields in applications. Dual modes of operation in user interface for handwriting and pointing/mouse input.
Microsoft announced their own tablet "for computing, communicating and reading electronics books" in 1999, prototype demonstrated June 2000. Points out that Microsoft's presentation omitted mentioning 10 previous years of pen computing industry. Refers to 1991, Pen Windows (Pen Services for Windows), Pen Windows 2.0.
Microsoft remote tablet/display for remote (100 feet) access to a Windows XP PC, using Terminal Server software over 802.11b WiFi. Not compatible with Tablet PC OS. Similar devices are AirSpeak Flair, DOT Design Technologies Xtend, Sony Airboard, Panasonic Toughbook 07.
Product review of Tablet PC laptops/slatetops for 2003: Acer Travelmate, Electrovaya Scribbler, FIC (First International computer Inc.) SlateVision, Fujitsu Stylistic, HP Compaq PC TC1000, Intermec CT60 Rugged Tablet PC, Panasonic GoBook, Motion Computing, Panasonic Toughbook, NEC Versa Litepad, PaceBlade Technologies Pacebook, Tatung Tablet PC, Toshiba Portege, ViewSonic Tablet PC V1100, Xplore Technologies.
Anoto position calculation: optical digitizer based on pattern of displaced dots.
Anoto rasterization pattern and encoding.
Anoto optical digitizer technology for "smart paper", refers specifically to not needing much pattern memory to realize the encoding of information that is larger than the writing surface. Specifically refers to determining rotation of stylus/barrel.
Anoto position calculation: optical digitizer based on pattern of displaced dots. Second example uses both displacement, and varying size of dots. Pattern not visible to user.
Microsoft Windows programming guide and reference, C#/C-sharp. Interfaces instead of multiple inheritance. Nothing on Tablet PC, PEN events, graphics bitmap masks. Compare with Visual Basic, PenApps.
Capacitive proximity digitizer combined with physical keyboard, user can move cursor by moving hand over the keyboard. Sensors are triangular pads with pointy ends toward center (or left and right for single-dimension input), measure amount of coupling to hand or finger, along with which pad had the coupling.
Capacitive proximity sensor to detect user's hand or finger where it might be / is caught in a hinge or door. Automotive applications?
Use array or line or matrix of capacitive touch sensors to form a keypad, keyboard, linear slider, liquid level sensor, or other sensing array. AC signal to capacitive electrodes. Slider can be curved.
Capacitive disk electrode sensor determines proximity of liquid water level. When water rises to cover electrode, another electrode higher up on a rod senses further.
IC integrated circuit component for capacitive sensing, uses pulsed signals (not AC or DC) to measure capacitance change. Sensor can be multiplexed for multiple sensors.
Desktop 3D three-dimensional electromechanical digitizer. Has multiple kinds of stylus tips (round, pointed, flat, etc.) for "scanning" different types of object in 3D, depending on the detail and minutiae of the surface. Windows drivers.
Picsel CLIE Photo and image viewer for Palm OS, has flick/scroll-page gestures. Tap+Press-hold-drag for zoom/unzoom (up and down), internal scroll "throw" gesture. Thumbnails of images age out and go away after a period of time to save memory resources.
Signature verification for cell phone access using a writing touchpad: uses a separate touchpad, not a stylus or pen built into the phone, as some other technologies do.
Display projector with steerable mirror, correction for parallax distortion, with detection of touch/pointing gestures using video camera. Any wall or object surface (e.g. tabletop, whiteboard) interactive touch surface.
product: Epson RC-20 WriteWatch with 2000 Bytes (!) storage, handwriting recognition similar to unistroke.
product: Kycoera Refalo 1991 double ring binder portable computer, handwriting recognition.
product: Casio IF-8000, showing user writing "meeting" on the screen, handwriting calculator, 1980's.
product: Sony Magic Link running General Magic MAGIC-CAP OS, office-level metaphor.
product: EO Personal communicator, 1994, with phone, fax, etc.
product: IBM Simon concept in 1994, personal computer and phone.
product: Sharp Power Sarus multimedia hand-held computer with digital camera.
product: Sharp MCG-1 communicator (date late 1990s?), includes sketch input, PIM.
product: Nokia 9000 communicator: organizer, web, email, GEOS pen-computing touchscreen operating system.
product: Casio VDB-100 touchscreen wrist watch, Casio NX-6000 / Planeo pen computer, Z7000 Zoomer GEOS.
product: INDEX portable keyboard-less (touchscreen) computer, with FM-Radio receiver : camera?
Zoomit project. Pop-up/radial context menus. Mentions command compass menus of Momenta.
Network intrusion detection by analyzing network traffic, including network errors and packet inspection. Refers to statistical analysis: Compare with invariant condition analysis of Cylant?
TouchEngine: small vibrotactile actuator for PDAs, multi-layered piezoelectric actuator for haptic feedback. Also TiltEngine tilt sensor for tilting user interface ("tilting interfaces not entirely satisfactory").
Tactile/haptic feedback to button presses on touchscreen: actuator is only on screen itself, not on whole device, so that actions on simulated buttons feel more like actual buttons, etc. Click, touch, takes into account "lift-off" outside of button as a form of Undo gesture.
Air-gap tactile pressure sensors / touchpad. Top surface is elastic (Kapton) membrane, pressed into air gap with lower layer of matrix grid.
Segmentation of free-hand sketches (from tablet) based on corner points and eight-directional chain code.
Pointing device using head motion: assistive technology device to replace mouse/tablet.
Compare with Don Drumm "Orb" device which used head tilt and simple speaking tube for mouse clicks, rather than head rotation for both position and clicks.
Matrix scanning touch panel / touchscreen for touch keyboards: keys need not correspond to matrix crossings, can be anywhere, varying shape/size. Electrode pairs, touch/proximity changes capacitive coupling between pairs. Gives options on electrode design: pairs of electrodes in parallel, series, spirals. Grounding traces nearby worsen performance due to additional coupling to ground (e.g. with moisture).
Undergraduate textbook on digital circuit design. Description of half-adders and adders from logic/boolean elements.
Undergraduate textbook on analog circuit design, focusing on CMOS components. Differential amplifiers, passive and active current mirrors, noise, switched-capacitor circuits (A/D converters, sample-and-hold, etc.).
Wizard-of-Oz study (simulated recognition): brighter children were consistently less satisfied with the same recognition performance than less-bright children. Acceptable performance seemed to be around 91%. Contrast with LaLomia study for adults.
Capacitive sensors on wrist and elbow to recognize hand gestures, sensor wearable on clothes for sensing positions of fingers for one-handed gestures and typing. See also SmartSkin, and Smith paper "Electric Field Sensing For Graphical Interfaces<.
Multi-touch touchpad capacitive digitizer in a table surface, uses both position and distance of hand to surface to simulate manipulation of objects projected visually from overhead (e.g. playing cards). Second prototype is tablet/pad size. Hand-gesture recognition, bimanual (haptic) interface. Videos of the two prototypes in use, showing UI uses for multiple finger touches, gestures, proximity. Potential field interaction: objects repelled by proximity of hands or arms, sweeping gesture without contact (compare with Wilson optical flowfield?).
Brief demo of Rekimoto multi-touch touchpad capacitive digitizer tablet, showing multi-touch/multi-finger move/rotate of multiple objects.
Infra-red sensors behind projection touchscreen detect fingers proximate to screen. Multi-touch, multi-body input. Alternatively, infrared projecting stylus. Also describes data tablet (touch-table), proximity sensor for a wall, project images (route maps) when user moves by. Compare with Microsoft Surface?
On computers with a touchpad, ThumbSense: Two keyboard keys (F and J) used as mouse buttons when user's thumb touches touchpad. User need not remove hands from typing position. Touching touchpad can also work with further keyboard keys: e.g. ALT-TAB becomes radial pop-up menu. Can also use symmetric matches of keys for left and right hand both to have mouse buttons. In essence, turns touchpad into virtual 36-button mouse or digitizer puck.
Combined proximity touchscreen/ keypad/small keyboard input device: user can do gestures over/on keypad e.g. swipe, or gesture in conjunction with key e.g. press key then swipe off, or swipe with other finger. Two-finger (two-thumb) typing on same multitouch keypad. For limited size devices. Also preview commands when user places finger near/on key, actuate command when key pressed. tap-and-hold versus press-and-hold (2 touches vs. 1). Compare with Casio 8000 touch-pad/key-pad calculator, 1986?
Combined proximity touchscreen/keypad/small keyboard input device. For limited size devices. Touch gestures over/on keypad/keyboard e.g. swipe, virtual job (circular gesture). Preview commands when user places finger near/on key, actuate command when key pressed : useful when keypad is modal (e.g. TV remote control OR telephone OR text input), user can see command before committing. Compare button gestures with Casio 8000 touch-pad/key-pad calculator with handwriting recognition on keypad, 1986?
Resistive (?) touch screen that is less sensitive at edges, to achieve palm rejection. Or less sensitive at edges, used as scrolling area.
Steganographic (invisible) watermark/data-encoding in line drawings (bank notes) by encoding data in variance of line width, offset/position, luminance, etc. of lines. Digimarc, see also 5,850,481. Compare with Dataglyphs?
Rotate a GUI window that has a frame
Mouse emulation using stylus gestures dependent on time: press-and-hold, includes animated cursors as feedback.
Signature-verification/authentication pen: accelerometers in tip, pressure/tip-force sensor in body. Compare with Crane accelerometer pen? (Not cited). File includes presentation slides.
Signature-verification/authentication pen: accelerometers in tip, pressure/tip-force sensor in body. See 2001 paper.
Chapter 21 pointing devices. States that higher resolution mouse is faster, not more accurate: limit on accuracy is human pointing with hand. TrackPad. TrackPoint isometric joystick. Also keyboard (Dvorak, etc.).
Active haptic feedback in a touchpad. Very extensive prior art listing, including tele-operation and time delays back to 1980's.
Active haptic feedback in a touchpad. Vibration and pulse feedback.
Larger training sets results in better recognition. Training set was hand-tuned, so that infrequently-used letters were not undertrained.
Pie menus (marking menus) made transparent and floating/movable, so that user can see tools underneath. Also menus can be "locked" open, so that user can make additional selections/adjustments without having to go through entire menu hierarchy again. Compare with tear-off menus?
Project management and organization system.
Touch detectors (touchpad) composed of wires woven into fabric: resistive sheet determines X/Y position on a sensor by voltage gradient, and mechanical force, alternative uses multiple sensors for detecting multi-touch input.
Touch detectors (touchpad) two resistive layer composed of wires woven into fabric, separated by conductive layer.
Drawing/gesture mode in sketch application: system recognizes gesture automatically, pops up dialog box to confirm. If dialog box ignored, continues in sketch mode.
Tilt-to-write: not writing with a stylus, but tilt hand-held unit (e.g. PDA, phone) to select character from circular menus in zones: compare to Quikwriting, etc. Intended for use in one-hand hand-held devices, not for writing.
Background to ring-writer : Expectations for pen-computing starting with PenPoint and Pen Windows not realized. Mentions EO, Active Book, Newton PDA. Apple iBook (clamshell PC). PenWindows gave pen-computing a bad reputation, after elegant PenPoint. Proposes that mobile (hand-held) computers fail because neither handwriting recognition nor voice (speech) recognition will work well enough: Linear-X writing system of ring-writer: pie menu where user draws sequentially though three-letter segments (like phone keypad), software recognizes words from dictionary.
Gesture and handwriting character recognition in Smalltalk, for the Squeak project coordinated by Alan Kay. Does not give samples of gesture shapes or symbols. Description of symbol dictionaries, but no graphics. 2005 Author moves to Google R&D Lab in Zürich.
"Is There a Need for a Sketch Tablet?" proposal for sketch tablet for architecture applications.
Turn any object surface into touch-sensing (digitizer) surface using force-sensing strain gauges at edges/corners.
On smartphone (with touchscreen) control windows with UI (call slips) pop up for incoming calls, active calls. Has CIDCO iPhone Screen Phone circa 1999 (touchscreen desktop telephone with web access).
Business tutorial on wireless, cellular, and other technologies: includes location-based services, Software-defined radio, Smart cards, 3G, wireless PKI.
Business tutorial on investment "busts": HDTV, LEO (Low Earth Orbit) telecommunications, home networks, DSL, Voice Recognition, e-books (before Kindle and iPad), smart cards.
Good Overview article on the problems of pen-computing development, though not specific on applications development.
Pen-and-paper not a good metaphor for pen-computing electronic ink applications.
Electronic ink as a (neglected) datatype in its own right: does not mention JOT standard of 1991.
Refers to early research efforts (but not commercial efforts) in 1980s as focusing on booklet/portable units, pen gestures. States that Alan Kay's Dynabook had electronic paper in 1968. Claims pen-computing and communications in same unit first demonstrated by EO in 1993. Notes that training to 5,000,000 characters in the Unipen database is not enough to achieve good character recognition. Mentions pen gestures.
Description of the UNIPEN format (similar to JOT) for a large data collection of handwriting samples for research into recognition, handwriting dynamics, etc.
User Interface in Pen Computing; handwriting history; InfoPad; Pen Linux; Paragraph.
Collection of handwriting examples for discrete and cursive on-line character character recognition on tablet.
Collection of handwriting examples for discrete and cursive on-line character character recognition on tablet: format definition.
Skeptical new article on application utility of Anoto patterned paper digitizer: does not mention sound recording for notes, or indexing. Mentions also OTM Technologies, E-Pen inMotion, Digital Ink -- similar patterned technology?
WinTab tablet driver with rotation and transformation of virtual tablets, and demultiplexing of input. Compare with Foley 1990 on Windows Input Event Handling. (Additional references also in file.).
Tabletop/whiteboard systems. On tabletop touchscreens, users rotate/reorient objects (windows) for shared viewing, to highlight. Mentions non-oriented user interfaces (no menus or command windows). Importance of synchronous user interaction versus turn-taking. Many citations to tabletop systems.
With stylus (rather than finger), lift-off actuation only, no substantial difference in soft keyboard target sizes of 2.6, 3.5, and 4.4 mm on hand-held touchscreen. Different results in 1993 study by same authors.
Technology/history review of resistive-film, electrostatic/capacitive, ultrasonic, and electromagnetic digitizers integrated with displays. Asserts that inductive (electromagnetic) digitizer required for hover/proximity (although Scriptel electrostatic did it, perhaps references is restricted to COTS components). Special section on integration problems of electromagnetic digitizer (rear-mounted) with display: inverter noise/EMI shielding, power supply coil on motherboard, edge effects from metal frame. Special laboratory to re-calibrate digitizers incorporated with each display design. Mentions that Tablet PC spec requires proximity.
Similar to Anoto / Bennett / Sekendur, except does not use pre-printed pattern. Instead a CCD camera captures images of the surface as-it-is, and builds up a map of the image of the surface to use instead of the pre-printed pattern.
CCD camera for optical digitizer is mounted on a gimbal / universal joint (sic), so as to be able to view the entire surface.
Similar to Anoto / Bennett / Sekendur, except does not use pre-printed pattern. Instead a CCD camera captures images of the surface as-it-is, and builds up a map of the image of the surface to use instead of the pre-printed pattern. Specifically refers to the surface being the screen on a cell phone.
CCD camera for optical digitizer is mounted on a gimbal / universal joint (sic), so as to be able to view the entire surface.
(Summary of full book) electronic paper not eliminating physical paper: physical paper has many affordances: portability, note-taking, physical/muscle memory of location in text, physical delivery to a person raises importance of communication over electronic communication, etc. Compare with Anoto references.
Multi-touch touchpad, combined fingerprint scanner and pointing device. Allows (near-continuous) (re-)authentication of user whenever using touchpad. Mentions using contact area as surrogate for pressure/force, major axis of fingerprint to determine rotation. By recognizing fingerprint, can also detect rolling of finger. No description of an actual scanner: cites to 4,353,056 for an actual fingerprint scanner.
data-glove-like sensors fitting over knuckles and underside base of fingers, used for simulated touch-typing by detecting positions and actions of fingers. No projected image.
Unistroke gestures as symbol commands for tablet/mouse on windows. Compare with recognition macros from Pencept: AutoCad, word processing, etc. See also 1999 reference.
Review of rotary encoders incremental/absolute, circular barcode for absolute rotary position, sin/cos cycle pattern.
Freehand sketch beautification (recognition/understanding) using extrema, speed (velocity?) and curvature to straighten lines. Natural/familiar gestures (e.g. star shape gesture) easier for users than contrived command gestures. No processing for higher-level context, shapes, although examples are taken from simple mechanical design sketches.
two-dimensional bar code pattern in images by modulating halftone patterns, includes digital signature for authentication and integrity. Compare with Anoto pattern, Digimark authentification of printed documents, Xerox data glyphs (cited).
Presentation to accompany "Comparison of mouse, touchpad, and multitouch input technologies". Describes multiTouch as using a touch-matrix surface, versus a touch grid. Mostly review of ergonomic of a multi-touch keyboard.
Mouse with capacitive/touch sensors instead of mechanical buttons. Notes that touchpad can emulate mouse, but user experience is not same (ergonomics). Ball rotation / rotary encoder also detected via capacitive sensor vs. optical. Coasting/momentum behavior based on velocity of finger motion as finger lifts, simulated friction. Inertial scrolling.
Showing a busy/loading animation while web-browser content is loading.
Visual language definition (parsing of sketches for various diagrams/applications) with parsing criteria (e.g. distance to count as intersection) given as probability distribution, not fixed ranges/thresholds, then probabilistic parsing to "most likely" interpretation. Cites Sutherland for pioneering pen-based computing.
Design user interfaces with "layers" of menu/gesture option: simple features, intermediate, advanced. Useful to include show-me animations. Example on US Census map data.
Electronic book GUI: on-screen navigation (page turn, etc.), electronic ink annotation / mark-up, text search, bookmarks, TOC/table of contents browser links, scroll operations. Scroll arrows are fixed (Newton-style), not on-screen.
Speak user interface elements with auditory (voice) output when user does mouse-over or hover on element or text. Cites to outSpoken, compare with other screen readers e.g JAWS, or TI speak-and-spell for teaching reading to children, Multi-touch display from 1970's educational tool.
(In German) Slate / WebPad touchscreen device for children -- not the same as KidPad drawing software. Includes steerable camera for videochats, authentification of user (child) using fingerprint scanner.
Powerpoint presentation on mobile phone user-interface designs: most often needed features directly accessible, others (e.g. set screensaver) on low-level menus. Proximity sensing on touch screen: show enlarged keyboard/icons/menus as finger approaches display. Mentions PenPhone (pen-shaped phone).
Research summary posting: Integration server (iServer) with cross-media linking between paper and other electronic media types: compare with Anoto. Automatic generation of links.
Review of Paper++, linking of paper documents to other systems, appears to use Anoto optical stylus/digitizer?
Touchscreen cellphone/smartphone with built-in printer and optional video camera and display for videoconferencing.
GRiD Touchscreen computers: also AST PenExect pen-based slate/convertible.
Overview reference on sensors and transducers: three-plate/electrode capacitive displacement sensor, proximity sensor. Discussion of electrostatic speakers as sensor. Capacitive proximity sensor as touch sensor (e.g. in touch switches).
Automatic scrolling of text so that user does not have to scroll the text manually through a document, in a special window.
Scroll/pan a virtual page using a simulated button (area) on a touchscreen digitizer -- also with position sensor of device. Compare with Freestyle "Guide"?
Movable magnifier (rectangular example) in touchscreen user interface to magnify small text to tmake it more readable. Compare with AppLens.
Abstract refers to transparent sensing surface over display, electronic ink, character recognition, and learning mode.
Abstract reads almost identically to Sklarew patent 4,972,496: this one refers to "terminal disclaimer".
Long list of prior art.
Wearable Computers, cites ParcTab with touchscreen interface, Folio foldable display pen computer, Digital Ink pen computer. Cites to wearable computers with video for master/apprentice training.
SMART board interactive whiteboard digitizer: has separate physical button on Pen Tray for right mouse button. DViT (Digital Vision Touch) -- optical sensor for touchscreen?
SMART board interactive whiteboard digitizer: has separate physical button on Pen Tray for right mouse button. Projected Mode on physical screen: calibration for pointing with finger. Smart AWARE software injects electronic ink data (and handwriting recognition?) into compatible Windows applications. Floating Tools toolbar. Smart Keyboard on-screen virtual keyboard with handwriting recognition, similar to SIP in W4PC. DViT (Digital Vision Touch) -- optical sensor for touchscreen?
Whiteboard conferencing software for the Smart Whiteboard product.
WebCam image shown on the desktop via the overlaying whiteboard/conferencing software.
Laser/optical digital pen for tablet on any surface: if surface has bar coded pattern, determine absolute position, of no pattern, uses speckle (?) pattern to track relative position. 3D force sensor also in stylus/pen: used for rotation correction (?) and for touch/contact sensing. Compare with Anoto, Brouhon 07?
Multiple single-input pointing devices (mice, joystick, trackpad, etc.) in one user interface. User interface elements (scrolling, menus pull-down, drawing, etc.) can be assigned to different pointing devices. Compare with Buxton bi-manual?
handwriting/gesture user interface for inputting and editing two-dimensional mathematical expressions. Cites to bibliography of mathematical and algebraic systems and user interfaces.
Paper prototyping: sketch out user interface and interactions with users using literal paper, scissors, and sticky notes. Contains references to papers on usability testing, low- and high-fidelity prototyping systems, and accessibility (handicapped) resource centers at IBM.
Paper prototyping: sketch out user interface and interactions with users using literal paper, scissors, and sticky notes. Traces history to physical mock-ups on paper back to early 1970s, for usability studies on mail sorting devices, etc.
camera module for Sony CLIE hand-held PDA computers. PDA uses stylus. Camera can be rolled for selfie pictures.
Combine digitizing tablet with regular notebook paper on top, microphone and speakers for audio: User can play back their notes to see them drawn in real time, with the matching audio from a lecture. Cites to Digital Desk in describing opposite tack to computer user interfaces. Compare with Anoto audio/digitizer pen on regular paper, Wang Freestyle (not cited).
Prototype sketching/drawing system for pen-based/tablet system using tilt, pressure (tip force): Gimp only application to use tilt/pressure. XInput on X-windows supports touchscreens, tablets, other devices in addition to mouse and keyboard. Uses WINTAB driver sw (see) and Wacom tablets, OpenGL with alpha blending.
Wireless pen (digitizer) using three accelerometers, three angle/orientation sensors (gyroscopes) to infer pen position: extrapolates from known locations of calibration targets.
Thesis on general use of electrostatic/capacitive sensing for determining position. Example application is 3D mouse. Trade off in resistivity and leakage currents between resistive/conductive sheet and electrode sensors. duPont carbon film on cardboard (not ITO on glass). Multiple methods for measuring capacitance e.g. RC time constant in response to voltage step.
Thesis on experimental applications and user interfaces: includes Laser Rangefinder multi-touch touchscreen tracking multiple hands in front of large rear-projected images. Tapper (by Joe Paradiso) sensing touches/taps on transparent/ordinary glass, determines both position and intensity/amplitude.
Show Tablet PC ink objects and ink fields: compare with PenPoint and with PenApps of Slate.
zooming in/out: double-click gesture zooms object/document to original size and moves to center of screen. Animation of zooming provides context. Semantic zooming: when object is zoomed small, be smart about showing less text but font still at readable size.
outSpoken screen reader: active areas defined in particular application windows using trigger and action: e.g. trigger on change in text in field (Word document showing text name and size), action to read/speak text. Defined relative to window or relative to entire screen.
outSpoken screen reader: active areas definitions, automatic detection/reading of message boxes, tool tips, warning dialogs, double-tap/double-touch gesture for right mouse button.
Resistive touch-screens use PET polyethylene terephthalate film with ITO Indium Tin Oxide resistive film. Reference to spacer dots/bumps, similar to Elographics. Capacitive sensing can be front-mounted, but fewer layers than resistive touchscreen tablet digitizer. ClearPad (capacitive) and Spiral (inductive) digitizer tablets. Vague reference to proximity/hover sensing with ClearPad capacitive digitizer. States that capacitive film has proximity sensing.
Defines touchscreen, ITO, PET Polyethylene terephthalate.
Transparent capacitive grid touchscreen, for PS/2, serial protocol RS-232, and Apple Macintosh ADB protocols. States supports mouse input plus Synaptics extensions (gestures). Proximity sensing, force/pressure (actually contact area) of finger or hand. Capacitance/Z values affected by environment. "W" mode reports multi-touch contact: 1, 2, 3 fingers (capMultiFinger)or full palm (capPalmDetect), or pen (capPen). Principles of operation: includes some internal noise filtering, recommends additional filtering for fine positioning. Touchscreen firmware supports tap, drag, edge-motion, scrolling, tap-and-a-half (tap-slide/tap-glide) gestures: further documentation in driver pack. Code sequences on software to read serial interface. IsDragEnabled, IsTapEnabled APIs.
Descriptions of Capacitive, Inductive, and resistive tablet technologies from Synaptics. ClearPad is grid of two layers of ITO, determine accurate location of finger by signal strength at multiple intersection nodes. Describes combining capacitive (finger-touch) and inductive (stylus) to work with both, or to work with resistive: proximity sensing capacitive digitizer for pen computing.
Synaptics comparison of resistive (resistive/conductive sheet with air gab) with electrostatic grid. Does not discuss grid decoding, or multiple touches or palm rejection.
TabletPC first announced in 2001, for availability in 2002.
Description of Tablet PC as PC running Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, with pen and speech input. Link to Comdex 2001 demonstration by Bill Gates.
Press clippings on announcement of Tablet PC at CeBIT and other conferences. Electromagnetic stylus for improved display quality; Acer TravelMate small-format convertible. "TabletPC: Gates Lieblingskind".
TacTex Kinotex Smart Fabric: MTC-Express mouse-pad sized multi-touch pressure (force) sensing controller.
File contains multiple references.
Recognition of pen gestures is error-prone: recognize gestures as they are made, if gesture can no longer fit any recognition template, stop recognizing and treat as electronic ink (scribble gesture): mentions audio feedback on recognition of pen gestures.
Virtual Reality (?) via Whiteboard project "Flatland" at Xerox PARC, Kumon Machine project for teaching mathematics via pen computing (tablet computer for children). List of pen computer / tablet PC / PDA products as of 2000: Handspring, PalmTop, Pen*KEY from Intermec, Sharp ZR-3500X, Casio Cassiopeia. Pen-computing games.
Press announcements on Targus HandCam: still pictures and video on PalmOS PDA via Springboard interface on Visor PDA.
Hidden Markov Model HMM for optical recognition of handwriting; points out need to include "junk" data (things that can be mistaken for characters) as well as "good" data in training set.
Replacement for Graffiti unistroke character/stroke recognizer: trainable recognition, for the Palm Pilot PDA.
Refers to matching system, using a match-percentage and squelch values for character recognition; mentions recognition/stroke/character macros, up to seven characters.
Asynchronous search of remote (network) database on another thread from a word-processing program.
Product information on barcode scanners and labels. Original project pen-shaped hand-held barcode reader. Compare with Anoto?
small-format touchscreen virtual keyboard for PDAs/smartphone. Combination of grouped keys (e.g. 26 keys of alphabetic divided into six groups). User types/taps on keys, dictionary match to words that could be spelled with letters of those keys. Use with other pointing device for accessibility: compare with other accessibility hierarchical keyboards. Compare with touch-tone address look-up?
Small-format touchscreen virtual keyboard for PDAs/smartphone. Combination of grouped keys (e.g. 26 keys of alphabetic divided into six groups). User types/taps on keys, dictionary match to words that could be spelled with letters of those keys.
Xtools windowing overview and installation guide: X11, multiple Window managers: twm, Motif, mwm-.
Touchscreen/digitizer with double-ended stylus, determined by number of contact points on end of the stylus: compare with Freestyle double-ended stylus. Uses SAW digitizer that can determine multiple points of contact. Cited to Agulnick patent. multi-touch: Carroll Touch SAW digitizer/touchscreen.
Haptic feedback vibrator seat or vest. (Compare "butt-tickler). Can be retrofit (host-independent) to an existing game by responding to the sounds output by the electronic game, or can be controlled by commands (host-dependent) from the computer. Effects include crashes.
History of Windows CE development, originated with WinPad/Pegasus/Pulsar projects circa 1996 with handwriting recognition in handheld/palmtop device. Mentions RISC processor support. Stylus as mouse equivalent. ActiveSync.
multi-touch (two points) on resistive film digitizer: Additional current from two points of contact indicates two points, rather than one, firmware uses most recent single point and second point.
Review of Windows interfaces, mentions post-WIMP (see van Dam) gesture UI user-interfaces: pie-menu "marks" (marking menus) or quick gestures with mouse -- direction is easier to do with mouse than distance or position for a pop-up menu. Zomit navigation menus for mouse. Bruce Tognazzini on gesture input (from Tog's Blog, 2003), including hand gestures and other input. Gestures on whiteboard systems. Task Gallery project included audible (musical?) feedback on correctly-recognized gestures.
Review of Tablet PCs, mentions Paceblade Pacebook Tablet PC. Uses term digitizer display to refer to a digitizer integrated with a flat display.
Synaptics cPad touchscreen/digitizer in Toshiba laptops: touchpad for cursor control, signature capture. X/Y grid of ITO conductors forming capacitors at cross-over points. Pressure (equivalent) determined from amount of capacitance change from finger, location is cross-over with peak change, comparing adjacent electrodes (interpolation) for more precise location. Refers to including haptic feedback on digitizers.
Tablet PC convertible: obtained as working device, may need stylus.
touchscreen/"input display" integrated LCD display and 2D matrix of optical pixel sensors together. One application is laying business card on display to scan it in.
IR infra-red optical touch sensor over contact-screen touch digitizer: essentially giving you proximity sensing when finger interrupts IR optical beams before touch. gestures include pick and drop, rollover gesture.
VILPERT (Visual Language Expert) system for implementing Visual languages (e.g. LabView): parsing and grammatical models, with context (rather than context-free implementation). Includes drag-and-drop (visual) language editor with nesting/containment.
Fingerworks multi-touch technology by Wayne Westerman and John Elias, company later acquired by Apple for the iPhone. Mentions simulated devices on a touch-screen -- compare with Kaplow?
Pressure-sensitive ink, like conductive rubber: curable ink material with conductive filler (small particles?). Example of matrix/grid pressure/touch sensor.
Review article on tangible user interfaces, and augmented physical/tangible objects: cites to Buxton and Shneiderman among others.
Color/style schemes in windows-based UI (Apple MacIntosh): theme style also can change shape of windows (rounded corners, etc.) not just colors, by changing the presentation layers for user-interface objects.
He managed ... the RAND Tablet project which included real time recognition of hand printed characters using a tablet and stylus, in 1961.
XML standard for embedding handwriting, optical, scanner information in documents for forensic authentication/signature verification analysis. Discusses use of chromaticity, document examination in forgery detection.
Resinous material for space dots in Elographics-style touchscreens. Transparent flexible conductive plastic ... electrodes.
Scroll/browse by tilt of handheld device: scroll to position of tilt (absolute), not in direction of tilt (relative).
Review of handprint recognition systems provided by readers. Most recognizers were "ad-hoc" (rule-based), less than 2000 lines of code.
Optical trackball with no moving parts: top surface is curved lens, optical sensors below detect motion of finger across top.
XML schema reference.
TOC only: Input Panel options, Send as Text vs. Send as Ink, Journal and Notes note-taking applications for electronic ink: Virtual Keyboard in Tablet PC, Tablet PC / Windows gestures.
Rocker switches at four poles of circular cover for four-directional input, alternative is circumferentially positioned pressure sensors around circular cover. Switches can be pressure-sensitive (force) sensors, pressure/force controls cursor/mouse speed. Cites to FSR force-sensing resistors. Compare with Apple click-wheel?
Touchscreen made accessible by displaying second/duplicate set of virtual buttons on edge, frame next to edge has tactile ridges or markers to aid in finding buttons.
accessibility button to side of touchscreen to invoke menu of accessibility options (large text, audio output, etc.) with up/down buttons to select. Combined with optional annotation/help audio text labels.
cell phone with rotary dial (small knob) instead of keypad or touchscreen, display is at a diagonal to display more data. Alternatives include small trackball, or two linear rollers.
Layout and visualization for multiple users at multi-person touchscreen tabletop browsing documents/photos together: tree hierarchies oriented towards user. Prototype uses overhead projection an Mimio ultrasonic digitizer stylus.
Project management and organization system.
Refers to Tablet PC as a "Slate Computer", but does not mention Slate Corporation. Overview of Input Panel for handwriting recognition input, gestures, Windows Journal, Sticky Notes. Mentions ISF Ink Serialized Format (similar to JOT format standard for electronic ink?). Text Services framework for handwriting recognition adds dictionary alternatives, using "factoids" for type of input: field type EMAIL, DIGIT, TELEPHONE, POSTCODE.
Description of Gestures, simple mouse stroke controlling system as used in Opera browser, but works on whole system: stroke gesture recognition for mouse input.
Optical/video detection of finger pointing and hand gestures. Gives examples of image differencing against reference image of background to detect additional object (hand) and motion of hand, finger-finding algorithm using pixel width of fingers and relative widths of fingers (e.g. thumb. versus little finger), segmentation using colors as well as image subtraction. Dropped frames (could not find finger due to moving) generally less of a problem than miss-classification of final pointing position. Multiple-finger gestures on image of desktop: multi-touch. No citation to Wellner?
On/Off or deactivation button for alarm with built-in LED light on hand-held PC with a touchscreen. Similar appearance to IBM Simon.
Adaptive handwriting recognition for discrete characters, training intended to occur during normal use (not separate enrollment). Uses dynamical time warping: compare with elastic matching by Tappert? Multiple citations to Ward/Kuklinski for handwriting variability.
multiple simple classifiers/recognizers for handwriting recognition, in a multiple-agent architecture.
Exchange format requirements for electronic ink data interchange: handwriting and gesture recognizers, signature verifiers, ink-aware (pen-aware?) applications on Web. Includes pen angle, pen tip force (pressure), sampling mode, sampling rate, screen context. Compare with JOT standard.
Announcement by WACOM at IBC Mobile Devices conference concerning Wacom tablets and Microsoft Tablet PC. Wacom integrating electromagnetic resonance (cordless stylus) tablets with LCDs for mobile touchscreen computers since 1985.
API and structures for Divider object to add segmentation manually to electronic ink, such as for strokes the developer assigns algorithmically to characters, to words, or to sketches.
General review of June 2000 and COMDEX November 2000 Bill Gate's demonstrations of Tablet PC prototypes.
TabletPC announced by Microsoft without reference to previous Windows for Pen Computing or previous decade of portable pen-computing products. Microsoft Notebook ink notetaking application for Tablet PC: acquired from Aha Software: InkWriter. Describes moving ink words as though they were text: compare with van Raamsdonk. Delayed or background recognition: compare with Slate deferred recognition. Windows Pen Services 1.0 "MARS" handwriting Recognizer, Pen Services 2.0 used GRECO recognizer, Windows CE 2.0 used CIC's Jot recognizer at the last minute, 1999 purchase of Calligrapher non-exclusive handwriting recognizer, combined with in-house gesture recognizer (?). Term "reco fusion" for combining multiple recognizers. Prototype used FinePoint Innovations digitizer.
Extensive review of history of Tablet PC from Microsoft, comparison with Windows for Pen Computing / PenWindows history. Electromagnetic digitizer ("active" tablet/touchscreen).
Review of Tablet PC, announced by Alex Loeb at WinHEC2001. Questions from Geoff Walker to Alex Loeb, comparing GO / PenPoint pencentric approach to Windows for Pen Computing / Tablet PC adding pen/stylus/gesture functionality to mouse-centric OS.
Taxonomy of pen-computing digitizer tablet pen computers: Internet Appliance (Compaq Internet Appliance, Sony eVilla, Virgin WebPlayer, Gateway TouchPad, Compaq IA-2), Thin Client (terminal: AirSpeak Flair, NCD ThinSTAR), WebPad (Windows CE, QNX, Midori Mobil Linux, CE Tablet (Fujitsu PenCentra), Pen Tablet (SONICblue ProGear, Tablet PC. Says Tablet PC hardware will not ship until 2002.
Business review of Microsoft Tablet PC system. OneNote replaces Windows Journal -- describes use of ink notes an annotations in Microsoft Office: Word, Excel. "Active Digitizer" providing hover/proximity sensors (Wacom digitizer) and FinePoint innovations. Credits Fujitsu with originally creating Pen Tablet market in 1993. Detailed list of application vendors and hardware vendors.
optical trackball with no moving parts: finger moves across lens, optical sensors below detect motion. Emulates flick motion/gesture of physical/mechanical trackball: motion stops when user touches again. User-definable acceleration/deceleration characteristics/parameters. Inertial scrolling.
Two-dimensional parsing of mathematical expressions: assumes symbols are written left to right; no references to work before 1998.
Rapid search algorithm for identifying music over low-quality audio system: cellphone microphone, background noise, mixing with other tracks. Describes combinatorially hashed time-frequency constellation analysis to compute signature for comparison with signatures/audio fingerprints in a database. Constellation map of feature points extracted from spectrogram.
Primarily about hand-held devices since 1997, several references to Chinese/Asian product with handwriting recognition.
States that classifier/recognizer is not the most influential factor on recognition accuracy, but does not state what.
mentions Lexicus, Paragraph (licensed to Microsoft), DragonPen, PenPower.
E-commerce by locating payment server in separate country to avoid exchange rates. Compare with CertCo?
Electronics for Imaging: ultrasonic/acoustic transducers in the pen, mentions pressure-sensitive tip also using ultrasonics: cites Blesser/Philbin/Philips patent for spatial filters, apparently as prior art for tilt, height, and parallax correction.
Community-based electronic credentialing using non-CA PKI. Non-hierarchical alternative to traditional PKI, making use of a management system separate from a CA Certifying Authority (a.k.a. Certification Authority) for credentials from multiple sources.
Review of stylus or touchscreen digitizer notebooks with wireless web access: mostly running WindowsCE, mentions TabletPC in 2001.
3D sketching/shape input for Reponsive Workbench (3D display), user inputs curves for wireframe model, then surfaces. User can point with 3D stylus. Sites to other systems using (two-handed/bimanual) gestures for surface sketching.
Multi-touch surface using capacitive sensor array, used to recognize multi-finger gestures for graphical manipulation. Gesture examples detect up to four finger touches, plus pointing input like a mouse. Cites to educational studies with children. Also cites Lee, Buxton, and other earlier multi-touch devices. Chord gestures are recognized, then user can continue with pointing or other input without a separate action (button) for mode switch between typing and pointing, etc.
Multi-touch digitizer, electrostatic/capacitive. Uses an X/Y grid of capacitive sensor points. The touchscreen sensor technology later used in the Apple iPhone. Large family of patents. Includes ellipse fitting for multi-touch surfaces to track finger touches. Virtual trackball device with acceleration. Path-tracking using predicted positions. Gestures. Press-and-hold. "anti-pinch" (compare "zoom") gesture for paste, multi-touch gestures. Pressure using compressible dielectric or cover. Vertical conductive wires in cover to transmit capacitive effect. Proximity/pressure used as confidence factor for position when tracking paths. Roll and tilt gestures. Stylus position inferred from hand pattern shape (as extended index finger == stylus). Press-and-hold "too long" .. "delete its keypress element". Hand pressure used as Z input.
multi-touch surface (MTS) touchpad used for chorded input in a touch-sensitive keyboard, up to four fingers simultaneously. Thumb input stops key input, so that hand can be left rested, thus reducing palm-rejection problem. By using multi-touch gestures, need not regard absolute position of a virtual keyboard.
General reference/dictionary on electronics design, components, standards.
Combination of optical/video digitizer to track pen position, and dynamic optical character recognition. Target is for PDAs, use built-in camera and regular pen and paper instead of small display touchscreen. Compare with Wellner, MetaDesk, etc.?
Video-based (instead of tablet) on-line handwriting recognition, extraction of writing trajectories, up-down detection. Corrections for slant, writing size, statistical modeling.
Sony smartphone/PDA with touchscreen interface: Symbian operation system.
Palm Treo 180 (Handspring), first Palm GSM smartphone. Models both with thumb-type keyboard and with Graffiti handwriting recognition on touchscreen.
Simplified keyboard for smartphones and hand-held PDAs using touchscreen phone-keypad. Characters input by tapping (for main character), slide/swipe in particular direction for secondary characters. Compare with Buxton? Available on Apple Watch. See also Nesbat.
Sony smartphone/PDA with touchscreen interface: Symbian operation system.
Window can be made transparent/translucent when inactive/disabled, user can see and manipulate window/object underneath. When active, window is opaque, and processes input itself.
3D/6DOF input pointing device: wand/digital baton. IR infrared tracking for position, magnetometer and accelerometer sensors for angle and motion. Combine gesture (e.g. pointing at a lamp) with verbal command (e.g. "Turn on"), point at stereo and gesture clockwise/ccw for volume. Compare with Lincoln Wand, "Put-that-there", WII? Cites to laser pointers.
3D/6DOF input pointing device: wand/digital baton. IR infrared tracking for position, magnetometer and accelerometer sensors for angle and motion. Combine gesture (e.g. pointing at a lamp) with verbal command (e.g. "Turn on"). Compare with Lincoln Wand, "Put-that-there", WII? Cites to laser pointers.
Combine two types of sensors in a touchscreen, and only count as a touch when both detect. E.g. a force sensor (may be a single sensor for the whole touchscreen) to discriminate real touches from spurious signals in an acoustic/SAW touchscreen due to contamination on the surface.
On a small touchscreen PDA, show thumbnail of full normal web page or application, user can select portions of thumbnail image and get just that portion zoomed up in a separate part of the display. Thumbnail as a whole can also be zoomed/panned/scrolled.
Edge Keyboard / EdgeWrite unistroke alphabetic handwriting, user moves to corners and sides of small hand-held touchscreen with a frame: recognition depends only on order of corners, not on continuous contact. Intended for difficulties of writing while holding a small device.
Intended as accessibility aid for users with motor impairments (cerebral palsy, etc.). Edge Keyboard / EdgeWrite unistroke alphabetic handwriting, user moves to corners and sides of small hand-held touchscreen with a frame: recognition depends only on order of corners, not on continuous contact. Cites to Quikwriting, plastic templates over touchscreens. Edge Keyboards / virtual on-screen keyboards require constant visual attention, EdgeWrite does not.
RoomPlanner: prototype room furniture layout application. Multi-finger/Multi-hand interaction techniques with focus on whiteboard application. Prototype with DiamondTouch multi-touch table, identifies users by coupling. Gesture include tap, double-tap, press-and-hold (?), horizontal and vertical hands, open/flat hand, two corner-shaped hands, two vertical hands. RoomPlanner: Object manipulation uses partially-transparent objects (furniture).
Xsensor sensor pad: large-format pressure pad (compare touchpanel) sensors for X/Y sensing of whole body: design of chairs, medical force imaging.
Correspondence on baseline for handwriting recognition for descenders, etc.
Review of Toshiba T200 Pen-Pc running Pen Services 2.0 on Windows 3.1. States that gestures (in version Win4Pen Windows for Pen Computing 1.0) were easier to use than the pen-enabled toolbar of Windows 95 for backspace, undo, delete, new-line, etc.
WEAVER, pen-enabled/pen-aware enhancements for Windows, hooks into existing GUI code. Includes contact information for specific application (compare with JAWS?), e.g. in word-processing arrow gesture means move, lasso/closed-loop gesture is multiple selection. Chinese handwriting character recognition with pop-up editing menus. Separate gesture-based word processor. Cites to Windows for Pen Computing (PenWindows), PUI (Pen-based user interface), WinTab specification.
In a SAW or optical-beam touchscreen, can detect more than one point of touching. Disambiguate which one is a write point (stylus) by it being closer to where the stylus was on the previous sample.
Assertion that estimation of handwriting baseline prior to recognition, instead of making it part of handwriting recognition, can *hurt* recognition success.
Three (or more -- up to 36 DOF?) dimensional 3D / 6-DOF input using two or three tablets arranged on outer sides of a cube. Also on touch cylinder, globe, can also be rotated. Alternatively trackballs on three sides of a cube. Cites to Tekscan and Intelligent Computer Music Systems (TouchSurface) for multi-touch force/pressure touchpads.
motion-tracked / spatially-aware display: hand-held device/PDA small display treated as viewport into larger image by tracking motion of device. Move device instead of scrolling on display (two-handed selection/dragging on touchscreen); draw on larger virtual surface. Also 3D layers by raising device.
Haptic Force feedback on mechanical manipulators, adjustable for amplitude, phase, frequency, and spring gain constant.
iPod scroll-wheel interface allows for one-handed operation.
Force-feedback SensAble electromechanical pantograph, Logitech WingMan mouse, and PHANToM for haptic display of line drawings / graphs for visually impaired users.
Accessibility: show bar charts using PHANToM pantograph haptic display from SensAble Technologies for the blind. Works better than texture/braille-like diagram. Refered to as multimodal VR display.
Accessibility for blind: graphs (line, bar charts, pie charts) displayed haptically in web page using Logitech WingMan Force Feedback Mouse, Immersion TouchSense plug-ins for web page and Java. Used JAWS for screen reader.
Accessibility for blind: graphics presented to visually impaired using force feedback (haptic), 3D spatialized sound, synthesized speech, and non-speech audio. (Compare with earcons). Graph values can be spoken (synthesized speech) or musical tone. Logitech WingMan force-feedback mouse, PHANToM 3D pantographic device with force feedback.
Graph-drawing application for blind/visually impaired. Haptic (vibration) output on every grid-line, audio output on major grid-lines (5th, 10th, etc.) Pie using force/haptic feedback on perimeter. Notes obsolescence of LogiTech WingMan force-feedback mouse (discontinued) as practical risk for accessibility use.
Cleans up / prettifies handwritten mathematical electronic ink by applying some normalization of the electronic ink, making use of some heuristics of mathematical syntax, but not full character/symbol recognition, including use of writing baseline.
Add force sensor to mouse button to allow user to press and hold harder for pop-through menus: unlike double-click does not require user to hold mouse without moving.
Study of typing speed with virtual keyboards (on separate display, not on touchscreen). Accuracy better towards center of (hexagonal layout) keyboard, performance improves over time. QWERTY keyboard performs worse than all other keyboard layouts tried. Physical icons/targets about 10mm size, gives pixel size but not physical size of display. Key images printed on tablet, so no parallax, no slick/slippery glass touchscreen.
Models for user performance with virtual keyboards, applied to QWERTY, FITALY, and OPTI. 10-finger touch typing skills not transfer to on-screen virtual keyboard with stylus tapping, because memory and motor behaviors are different. Better user typing performance with Metropolis (triangle-shape / hexagonal) layout.
SHARK -- SHorthand Aided Rapid Keyboarding: Single-stroke word on virtual keyboard on touchscreen by user moving stylus from character to character (on non-QWERTY keyboard) without lifting. Keyboard then not displays, user has learned the motion pattern for words as "shorthand". Depends on Zipf's law, that a small set of words (e.g. the, an) occur at very high frequency, other words can be tapped letter by letter. Cites to Marking menus, unistroke keyboard.
Expand targets on touchscreen as user's hand/stylus comes closer. Accurcy of touchscreen pointing/selection.
Visual touchpanel / vision-based gesture interface. Camera observes rectangular paper (keyboard) or other image and tracks tip pointer (finger or pen as stylus). Tracks changes in quadrilateral distortion of panel/paper. No color tracking: relies on contrast of pointer with white paper underneath. Dwell/press-and-hold gesture used for click and selected. No mention of Wellner Desk. Automatic quadrilateral detection, includes joystick mode demo. See Wu 2000 for earlier version.
Visual touchpanel / vision-based gesture interface.
Encrypt automatically when saving a file, decrypt when opening: claims all cryptographic functions, which would probably include digital signatures. Encryption enabled with fingerprint (biometric) reader. Re-issued with new claims. Subject of press reports on patents needing re-review.
Signature verification/ handwriting verification / biometrics on Palm PDAs, and on Windows using Wacom tablet. Primarily about training users to produce forgeries, based on giving users only the clear-text, low-force where users see static image of writing only, and brute-force where users see dynamic display of writing.
Chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken chicken: chicken chicken chicken. (Geek humor In English).
Capacitive grid touchscreens using X/Y grid of microfine (.01mm) wires, approximately 16x16 wires for a small display. Additional documents (through 2012: same product line) in electronic file. Support drivers include Windows 95 and Windows 98. Mentions select-on-dwell driver support: press-and-hold.
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This compilation and all annotations are copyright © Jean Renard Ward, 1993, 2004, 2011, 2013, 2016.
I can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.